Series Code: ASB
Program Code: ASB000101A
00:04 And comes from the DVD series, "Awesome Science"
00:10 NOAH JUSTICE: Our first stop on today's tour
00:12 is at the grandest of canyons, the Grand Canyon.
00:16 Secular scientists say it was formed over millions of years,
00:19 but now some scientists are changing their view.
00:23 The facts only fit what we learn using real science.
00:27 It's not millions, but just days.
00:32 Then we travel up river to Glen Canyon Dam
00:36 to learn about cavitation, a process where high velocity,
00:40 high pressure water can erode through concrete
00:42 and hard rock in seconds.
00:45 All this and more next on "Awesome Science."
00:54 "Awesome Science" takes you on a field trip
00:57 to some of the most amazing, geologic, and historical sites
01:00 around the world, where we use the Bible as our history
01:03 guidebook to interpret what we see,
01:06 that the Bible can be trusted and empirical science falls
01:10 in line with the biblical account of creation,
01:12 the fall, and the flood.
01:15 Science-- it's awesome.
01:24 The Western United States has some
01:27 of the most amazing scenic wonders
01:29 of the world-- Yellowstone, Yosemite, and the Grand Canyon.
01:36 The Grand Canyon is found in the northern part of Arizona.
01:42 It has a depth of more than a mile
01:45 and is as wide as 18 miles.
01:49 It can be seen from the moon.
01:52 It is truly an awesome sight.
01:57 The amazing Colorado River has its start
01:59 on the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains
02:02 and runs 1,450 miles to the ocean.
02:06 It travels 277 miles through the canyon.
02:10 Eventually, it empties into the Sea of Cortez in Mexico.
02:14 Native Americans first dwelled here.
02:17 But in 1540, explorers with Coronado
02:20 were the first known Europeans to see the canyon.
02:24 Finally, in 1869, John Wesley Powell
02:27 led the first expedition in boats
02:29 down the Grand Canyon in just three months.
02:37 The most fascinating part about the canyon
02:39 is how we can see thousands of feet of sedimentary layers laid
02:42 down during the flood.
02:44 The Colorado River also flows through the basement granites
02:47 and schists.
02:49 This is fascinating to the scientific community
02:51 because it's one of the few places on earth
02:53 that you can study what happened in the past
02:56 on such a grand scale.
03:00 When you walk through the park, signs are up all over the place
03:04 saying that the canyon was formed over millions of years.
03:09 Because secular scientists believe
03:11 that slow geologic processes and evolution occurred
03:15 over millions of years.
03:17 Evolution and millions of years are
03:19 a part of the religion of secular humanism
03:22 in the same way creation and thousands of years
03:25 are part of biblical Christianity.
03:29 Evolutionary geology says that the present
03:32 is the key to the past.
03:34 In other words, the processes we see today
03:37 are what formed the past over long periods of time.
03:42 By doing this, they're saying that there
03:44 were no catastrophes in the past,
03:46 like the flood of Noah's day.
03:49 Here at the Grand Canyon, they say
03:51 the small Colorado River formed this huge canyon, given
03:55 enough time.
03:57 Catastrophe, which means a lot of change
04:00 over a little period of time.
04:02 Think Genesis' flood-- for secular scientists,
04:05 those things just don't happen on such a grand scale.
04:09 In the evolutionary world view, everything developed by chance
04:13 over billions of years, and creation by God is just a myth.
04:20 But some scientists, even though grudgingly
04:24 are having to reinterpret their thinking because they realize
04:28 that a proper interpretation of the evidence
04:31 just doesn't match up with millions of years.
04:33 There are suspicions that the Colorado
04:35 River couldn't have formed the Grand Canyon all by itself.
04:39 For instance, where the river started
04:40 is lower than what it went through.
04:43 Can a river go uphill?
04:44 I don't think so.
04:46 The Colorado River has its start in Rocky Mountain National
04:50 Park at over 10,000 feet.
04:53 Then it winds its way down through Utah
04:56 and empties into Lake Powell at around 3,700 feet.
05:01 After leaving Lake Powell, it meanders
05:03 through the Painted Desert.
05:05 A very large plateau rises 7,800 feet
05:09 to the west of the Painted Desert called the Kaibab
05:14 This is where the Grand Canyon goes through.
05:18 So how does a river rise 4,000 feet to cut a canyon?
05:21 It doesn't.
05:23 A river cannot run uphill.
05:25 Nothing in modern day observations
05:27 can reasonably explain how a river could have done this.
05:30 The Colorado River should have gone a different direction.
05:35 Some theorize that the plateau rose while the canyon was
05:38 being formed.
05:39 But there is no evidence for this to be the case.
05:43 In fact, most scientists believe that the plateau
05:46 rose before the canyon was cut.
05:49 Some other mechanism was at work to carve this canyon.
05:54 Then, there's the problem of water flow.
05:58 When you take the volume of water of the Colorado,
06:01 even in flood stage, there is no way
06:03 a river this small, compared to the size of the canyon,
06:06 could have eroded away this much material
06:09 over any period of time.
06:11 We don't see it today.
06:13 It's wishful thinking.
06:16 And finally, because of gravity, a river
06:18 always erodes downwards.
06:21 Floods do come and change the direction of a river.
06:25 But a river 18 miles wide with the current water volumes
06:28 would be so shallow it would have very little
06:31 erosional power at all.
06:33 Some major event would need to have
06:36 happened to carve this canyon.
06:43 The Bible tells us that around 4,500 years ago God
06:47 was grieved that He had made man because of these three things--
06:51 he was bent toward violence, evil intent,
06:55 and was wicked at heart.
06:57 Genesis 6, verses 5 through 7, tell us,
07:01 "then the Lord saw that the wickedness of man
07:03 was great in the earth, and that every intent
07:07 of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
07:10 And the Lord was sorry that He had made man on the earth,
07:14 and He was grieved in His heart.
07:16 So the Lord said, I will destroy man,
07:18 whom I have created from the face of the earth, both man
07:22 and beast, creeping thing and birds of the air,
07:24 for I am sorry that I have made them."
07:29 God was going to judge the world and send a global flood
07:32 to destroy mankind, except for one man and his family.
07:37 The Bible tells us that Noah found favor with God
07:40 because he was a righteous man.
07:42 He told Noah to build an ark and fill it
07:45 with two of every land-dwelling, air-breathing animal, including
07:49 the dinosaurs, and seven of every bird and clean animal.
07:52 Once on the ark, the flood came seven days later,
07:56 and with a vengeance.
07:57 The fountains of the great deep burst
07:59 forth, which included water and volcanic activity.
08:02 It rained for 40 days and nights.
08:05 The ark rose above on the waters.
08:08 And the flood waters were sustained for 150 days.
08:12 Water rose at least 20 feet above the highest mountains
08:16 during the flood.
08:17 At the end of those days, the waters
08:19 began to recede, which took about five months, then
08:23 another two months of drying time.
08:26 The earth went through a catastrophe
08:28 like it had never seen before.
08:30 All life was destroyed beneath those waters.
08:33 While the water covered the entire earth,
08:36 continents moved under the oceans.
08:38 Giant water currents carried silt and mud across the globe.
08:43 Billions of creatures beneath the waters perished.
08:46 They were rapidly buried by sediment and fossilized.
08:51 As the catastrophe began to wind down,
08:55 the moving continents came to a stop, buckling rock layers
08:58 and pushing up mountains thousands of feet high in just
09:03 Water that ran off the continents
09:05 caused huge sheet erosion, pulling silt and soft soil
09:09 into the oceans.
09:10 The volume became less and began to channelize, forming
09:14 canyons and some valleys.
09:18 The water became trapped in the valleys between the mountains,
09:21 forming gigantic inland lakes.
09:25 The post-flood earth was drastically
09:27 different from before the flood.
09:31 Mankind, except for Noah and his family, were wiped out.
09:36 It was God's judgment upon the earth for sin and rebellion.
09:43 The key to helping us understand how this canyon was carved
09:47 may be in the canyon walls itself
09:50 and in the basement rocks at the bottom.
09:52 There are up to 40 major sedimentary layers
09:56 in the Grand Canyon area.
09:57 Sedimentary layers are rock layers,
10:00 formed by water laying down silt, mud, and sand.
10:05 They were soft at one time, like the muck left over
10:08 after a local flood.
10:11 Once the water departed, the sediments
10:13 hardened into rock layers, though some lower layers surely
10:16 began forming into rock prior to being
10:18 dry due from the pressure above them.
10:23 Below the sedimentary layers of the Grand Canyon
10:25 are the basement rocks of granite and schists.
10:29 The basement rocks are not sedimentary, but mainly
10:32 volcanic and metamorphic.
10:35 They were there before the sedimentary layers
10:37 were laid down.
10:38 What's most interesting about the basement
10:40 rocks is that they don't contain any megascopic marine fossils,
10:45 meaning that they were not formed during the flood
10:48 but were a part of the original creation,
10:50 around 1,600 years earlier.
10:55 Signs of the Grand Canyon will tell you
10:58 that the sedimentary layers were laid down
11:00 over millions of years on the basement rocks by oceans.
11:05 Oceans would come in, then recede, leaving layers
11:09 and repeat the same process at least seven times,
11:13 one on top of each other, over and over.
11:16 But this raises problems because ocean floors are not
11:20 places know known to form fossils because of scavengers
11:24 and decomposition.
11:26 And the Grand Canyon layers do you have fossils.
11:30 Since oceans cannot rise 4,000 to 7,800 feet,
11:34 secular scientists say that this ground was originally lower,
11:37 then pushed up after the oceans left the deposits.
11:40 As creationists, we do agree in one sense with secular
11:44 scientists-- the earth's crust has risen and fallen,
11:49 but we believe this all happened during the flood and especially
11:53 during the recessional stage, as mountains rose
11:56 and the valleys sank.
11:59 The difference is in our belief about the timing.
12:02 It's not millions of years, but just months and weeks.
12:06 That is a very important distinction.
12:09 Even if this rising of the dry layers
12:12 happened over millions of years, as secular scientists believe
12:15 occurred repeatedly, the layers would
12:17 be full of huge cracks and many fractures.
12:21 But we don't see that.
12:23 We do see some bent layers, but not large scale fracturing
12:28 or snapping, indicating the layers were moved
12:31 and Bent while still wet prior to being fully hardened
12:35 into rock.
12:37 So the whole sequence of layers had
12:39 to be deposited rapidly then bent
12:41 immediately before hardening occurred.
12:45 During the recession stage of the flood,
12:48 many areas of the earth's surface
12:50 were going through great uplifting or sinking,
12:53 causing some of this bending of the soft layers.
12:58 Many mountains were formed, for example,
13:00 by day 150 of the flood.
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13:56 Another challenge-- some sedimentary layers, especially
14:01 near the bottom of the canyon, have
14:03 many large embedded boulders in them, some of which
14:06 are 15 feet in diameter.
14:11 This would mean that there had been fast moving water carrying
14:14 these large stones along.
14:18 The Shinarump Conglomerate covers 100,000 square miles
14:22 and is full of pebbles, so the water
14:25 which formed these layers was likely moving extremely
14:28 fast over a wide area in order to round
14:31 so many pebbles by erosion.
14:35 The sedimentary layers were laid down quickly,
14:38 one on top of the other.
14:44 Many Grand Canyon sandstones contain cross beds.
14:49 Cross beds are sedimentary layers
14:51 which are laid down as tilted or inclined layers
14:54 during their deposition and are usually
14:57 caused by water or wind.
14:59 This widespread geologic feature is often
15:02 seen in ripples, dunes, and anti-dunes, sand waves,
15:07 sandbars, and delta slopes.
15:11 Some of these sandstone layers at the Grand Canyon
15:14 are thought by secular scientists
15:16 to have been formed by wind in arid deserts with blowing sand.
15:21 But we know from scientific testing
15:23 that a wind-blown sand dune's front face can reach
15:26 an angle of 33 to 34 degrees.
15:30 None of the cross beds in the Grand Canyon sandstones
15:33 are at a steep angle produced by desert dunes.
15:37 But underwater sand waves have front faces with angles
15:41 less than 30 degrees.
15:43 This is exactly what we find at the Grand Canyon.
15:48 This sandstone layer was created underwater.
15:55 At the bottom of the Canyon is an area
15:58 called the Great Unconformity.
16:00 The layers below the horizontal sedimentary layers
16:03 are tilted, as though a great upheaval happened.
16:07 Then these layers were eroded all flat with little time
16:11 to be subject to further erosion of valleys or other features.
16:15 The mud, silt, and sand were then quickly laid on top.
16:20 At the beginning of the flood, we
16:22 can infer that the earth experienced huge upheavals.
16:27 The fountains of the great deep burst
16:29 forth, the land shifted, and entire continents moved.
16:34 This was not a local event.
16:39 The sedimentary layers of the Tapeats Sandstone
16:42 and the Redwall Limestone stretch
16:44 across the continents of North America, Europe,
16:47 and parts of Asia.
16:50 Grains of Navajo sandstone in the Grand Staircase
16:54 can be traced to Oklahoma in some sand grains
16:57 as far as the northern Appalachians.
17:00 Secular scientists say that an ancient river carried the sand
17:04 grains 1,800 miles.
17:06 But there is no evidence for this.
17:08 So it's just speculation.
17:10 A global flood could have carried it west.
17:15 Current direction indicators in many strata layers
17:18 have been interpreted to show the waters were moving
17:21 from the northeast directly from the northeastern part
17:24 of America.
17:27 The Bible best explains so many of the geologic
17:30 features we find around the world
17:32 today, including the vast sandstone layers.
17:35 Science-- it's awesome.
17:40 Around day 150 of the flood, the continental shifting
17:44 was slowing down, the springs of the great deep were stopped.
17:47 The windows of heaven were restrained,
17:50 mountains had been formed, implying continental plates
17:53 had collided and water was steadily decreasing.
17:57 Scripture implies that this was all
17:59 going on under the surface of the water.
18:03 As the mountains rose, the great continental collisions slowed.
18:07 Giant land masses rose and sank, causing the flood waters
18:11 to recede off the continents and into the ocean basins.
18:15 When water recedes, it first goes in sheets,
18:18 then it channelizes, eroding canyons.
18:23 With the huge amount of water associated with the flood,
18:27 this erosion was massive, across entire continents.
18:32 Because plateaus and mountains were
18:34 formed during the stages of the flood,
18:36 large inland bodies of water were trapped.
18:40 It is now believed that two large lakes
18:43 formed behind the uplifted Kaibab Plateau.
18:47 Evidence has been left behind of two main lakes holding
18:50 an estimated 3,000 cubic miles of water, three times that
18:55 of Lake Michigan.
18:58 In addition to the lakes, there's strong evidence
19:01 that we interpret as harsh weather conditions
19:03 right after the flood.
19:05 Most creationists believe that there was a post-flood ice age.
19:10 To aid this, there may have been super-sized hurricanes that
19:14 roamed the earth as weather patterns were stabilizing,
19:17 causing massive flooding and produced enough precipitation
19:20 from the warmer climate in the early post-flood world
19:24 to create the polar ice sheets in a few hundred years.
19:29 This rainfall in the warmer regions
19:31 would build these lakes to overflowing.
19:35 Secular scientists say that these tiny rivers
19:38 carved these huge canyons over millions and millions of years.
19:42 That just doesn't work.
19:44 Since the plateau blocking the lakes had limestone in it,
19:47 and water leaches through limestone,
19:50 the integrity of the plateau began to weaken, probably
19:53 over several years.
19:56 The limestone could have also still been saturated from right
20:00 after the flood, making it even more
20:03 susceptible to quick erosion.
20:06 At some point, the integrity of the Kaibab Plateau
20:09 gave way and the Grand Canyon began to be cut.
20:13 When most dams break, once the first waters were through,
20:17 all of the water behind it pushed forward, causing even
20:21 a greater amount of erosion.
20:23 Hopi Lake broke through first, then Canyonlands Lake.
20:29 In just a few days, over a 1,000 cubic miles of earth
20:32 were eroded away.
20:35 Since this massive erosion was not long after the flood,
20:38 many of the layers in the Grand Canyon
20:40 were still saturated and comparatively soft.
20:43 So erosion could have been very quick.
20:50 Lakes can be formed by uplifting tectonics, volcanic activity,
20:54 earthquakes, receding glaciers, and even landslides
20:57 like this one behind me.
20:59 Some time ago, an earthquake occurred,
21:01 resulting in a landslide that took out
21:03 half this mountainside, blocking up the valley below.
21:08 The creek and the valley was blocked
21:09 by the landslide, allowing, over time, a mountain
21:12 lake to develop.
21:15 If the natural earthen dam holding back that mountain lake
21:18 were to break, it would flood this entire valley.
21:21 But that's only a little mountain lake.
21:23 Think of the water used to carve the Grand Canyon
21:25 and all it did.
21:28 Empirical scientific methodology means
21:31 you should be able to observe something and repeat it,
21:34 over and over again.
21:37 Even though the formation of the Grand Canyon was not
21:40 observable, and we cannot repeat it,
21:43 we've seen other canyons on a smaller scale form before
21:47 our eyes.
21:49 This is what we find at Mount St. Helens
21:51 in southern Washington state
21:55 Mount St. Helens was a dormant volcano.
21:59 And in May, it had a major eruption,
22:01 blowing out the north side of the mountain
22:03 and creating a blast zone unlike anything ever seen
22:07 in recent history.
22:09 Through a giant landslide and many eruptions,
22:12 several hundred feet of pulverized rock and ash
22:15 were deposited.
22:18 It became a wasteland.
22:22 After the main eruption in 1980, Mount St. Helens
22:26 went quiet for about two years.
22:29 During this time, snow built up within the crater.
22:33 The crater rim is like a large earthen dam that held back
22:36 snow and water for two years.
22:41 Then, in 1982, the mountain became alive again.
22:48 Melting the snow and ice, the water
22:50 quickly eroded through the soft volcanic soil
22:53 and came cascading across the blast zone.
22:58 It quickly created canyons in the volcanic rock and ash
23:05 Even though the Grand Canyon has sedimentary layers,
23:08 the same process of erosion applies--
23:10 lots of water cutting deeply in a little bit of time.
23:18 The Bible tells us that the flood was global,
23:21 it covered everything.
23:23 It was catastrophic.
23:25 The biblical flood provides a framework
23:27 for the proper mechanism and forces
23:30 necessary to produce these types of sedimentary layers
23:33 in a rapid succession.
23:35 The Bible is the true history book
23:37 of what happened on the earth.
23:39 It was not long periods of time, but
23:41 a short catastrophic period, validating the earth
23:45 as being young.
23:47 Those who believe in the literal account of earth's history
23:51 have long thought that the Canyon was not
23:53 formed in millions of years, but just days.
23:57 The Bible indicates that the earth is young,
24:00 around 6,000 years from creation to the 21st century,
24:05 indicated by reading the genealogies of Christ
24:08 and then from history forward.
24:12 So much of the earth's features we
24:14 see today would be due to catastrophe, not
24:17 long processes.
24:20 God wants us to use reasoning based
24:22 on the authority of scripture, not man's opinions.
24:26 Evidence for the flood is a reminder
24:28 that God has judged the world.
24:30 The Bible says He will judge the world again through fire.
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25:08 evolutionary worldview, which directly opposes the Word of God
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25:39 Thank you for watching this episode of "Awesome Science."
25:41 Tune in next time to learn about more evidence
25:43 for the Biblical account of creation.
25:45 Science-- it's awesome.
25:47 [music playing]