Participants: David Down
Series Code: DUTP
Program Code: DUTP000002
00:10 Welcome to Luxor where we can continue our story of Ancient
00:13 Egypt. In our last program we showed you the mighty monuments
00:18 of the pyramid age. So lets just first refresh our memory
00:22 as to how it all ended. Firstly there was the destruction
00:26 of Egypt farms and flocks by the 10 devastating plagues.
00:29 Then the annihilation if the Egyptian army in the waters
00:33 of the red sea in the Exodus. And finally the collapse of
00:37 power of the 12th dynasty. Egypt was then occupied
00:42 by the mysterious Hyksos who were later driven out of Egypt.
00:46 And the kings of the 18th dynasty ushered in a glorious
00:50 era of prosperity and power.
01:34 Well, it was probably Seqenenre of the 17th dynasty
01:38 who started the war of liberation against the Hyksos.
01:42 And how it all started is really rather ludicrous.
01:45 You wouldn't believe it. A delegation came from the Hyksos
01:50 king, away down there in the delta, some 700 kilometers away
01:54 And this delegation came up here to Luxor and said, Look,
01:58 You are digging a canal and there are hippopotami in this
02:02 canal and they are grunting at night.
02:04 Its keeping the Hypsos king awake.
02:06 Well, Seqenenre had to do something about it and so
02:09 he politely said, Alright, I'll do something.
02:12 But after they went - I can just see him turning to his
02:15 courtiers and saying, Listen you fellows, I've had it!
02:18 That's a last straw! I'm going to drive these fellows out of
02:23 the land of Egypt. And so the war of liberation started.
02:26 Well, Seqenenre was not successful.
02:28 In fact if you look at his mummy in the Cairo museum,
02:31 you'll find that it has two savage gashes in the forehead
02:35 and archaeologists have fitted a battle axe blade in there
02:38 and they find that it just fits perfectly.
02:40 Apparently he died of a battle axe wound in this war of
02:44 liberation. But he was succeeded by his son, Kamoses
02:48 and by his brother, Ahmoses and between them they successfully
02:53 drove the Hyksos out of Egypt and off the pages of history.
02:58 Well, they were followed by Amenhotep I and then Thutmosis I
03:04 Well, Thutmosis I started something new. You see, up until
03:10 this time all the previous kings had been buried in pyramids
03:13 But apparently Thutmose I decided there was no future in
03:18 that. They were being robbed and plundered anyway.
03:21 And so he started a new idea. Its a way over there on the
03:25 other side of the river Nile. And its called the
03:28 Valley of the Kings where this idea started.
03:41 Ah, this is just beautiful. I love this scenery.
03:45 I'm walking along, 6:00 in the morning along the bank of
03:49 the Nile here in Luxor. The reeds are floating down the
03:54 river. Over there, see those hills. Well, over there
04:00 is the Valley of the Kings. And that's where Thutmose I
04:05 started this new burial fashion. We're going to go
04:10 over on the ferry and finish up in the Valley of the Kings.
04:13 Right over there.
04:33 Here we are looking down on the Valley of the Kings.
04:38 And instead of building a pyramid for his burial place,
04:42 Thutmosis had his workmen chisel a hole into the side of the
04:47 valley. And there at the end of the passage he had a tomb
04:51 chamber. Now he was followed by other kings who did the same
04:54 thing and some of these tomb passages go a hundred meters
04:58 into the side of the cliff. And there are some beautiful
05:02 paintings on the walls.
05:41 At the end of the passage was tomb chamber in which was the
05:45 sarcophagus, in which the king's mummy was buried.
05:54 Well, Thutmosis I was responsible for this obelisk
05:58 that you see behind me and it stands over 21 meters high.
06:03 And if we had to accept the revised chronology,
06:07 of Dr. Manuel Villacosky, its rather interesting to notice
06:10 that Thutmosis the 1st would be contemporary with King Solomon
06:14 of Israel. Alright, if that is the case, then this passage
06:19 we find here in 1 Kings 3:1, is applicable.
06:22 It says, Now Solomon made a treaty with Pharaoh,
06:24 king of Egypt, and married Pharaoh's daughter.
06:27 And so Solomon would have been the son-in-law of Thutmose I.
06:32 Now, this Pharaoh gave his daughter a very unusual dowry
06:39 for her wedding. You'll never guess what it was.
06:42 But I'm going to read to you from 1 Kings 9 and verse 16
06:46 where it says, Pharaoh, King of Egypt, had gone up and taken
06:49 Gezer and burned it with fire, and killed the Canaanites who
06:53 dwelt in the city and had given it as a dowry to his daughter
06:56 Solomon's wife. Well now, if what I am saying is correct,
07:01 we should be able to find some evidence of Gezer being burned
07:05 with fire. Let's have a look at the city of Gezer and the
07:11 excavations there. It was built on this hill. And over the other
07:15 side, the archaeologists have done some excavating.
07:18 They have carved a deep trench which exposes the strata
07:22 or layers of occupation. I went there and had a good look
07:25 at the strata, and I found that there was a layer of ash there,
07:30 very heavy ash, in fact. I brought back some of the grains
07:36 of wheat that had been burnt and carbonized.
07:39 You can still distinctly see the little grains of wheat.
07:43 So Gezer was thoroughly burned. Alright, then who did it?
07:47 I took some pottery from underneath this burned stratum.
07:52 And I showed it to one of Israel's top archaeologists,
07:57 for identification. He, without hesitation, said, This comes
08:00 from the early bronze period. Now that means, in my thinking,
08:04 that this was the Canaanite occupation and above it was the
08:08 middle bronze, which I consider to be the Israelite occupation.
08:12 So here we have the evidence at Gezer that if the Canaanites
08:17 were conquered at some time, their city was burned
08:19 and above it is the evidence of Israelite occupation.
08:27 When Tutmoses I died, he was succeeded by his son Tutmoses II
08:34 But this poor guy didn't last very long, another 4 years.
08:38 Then he seems to have dropped dead. Well, he had no successor,
08:43 except his son by another wife, who was Tutmoses III.
08:48 but he was only a boy, only a child at the time.
08:52 And so the wife of Tutmoses II assumed the throne.
08:57 Her name was Queen Hatshepsut. Her statue you see here.
09:01 And Hatshepsut reigned for 21 peaceful and prosperous years
09:06 Well, she seems to have liked the job, because she started off
09:11 as a regent. But then this statue depicts her with a
09:16 queen's attire, female attire. Now, this statue here
09:20 depicts her as having male attire. You see that?
09:24 In other words, she was assuming the role, not of a queen now
09:28 but of a king, a Pharaoh. And she took all the titles of
09:31 a Pharaoh. And her statues in the Cairo museum actually
09:35 depict her as wearing a beard. For instance, this statue
09:39 and then this sphinx of her shows her with a beard.
09:43 Now, you might say, That's ridiculous, a woman wearing a
09:45 beard? But you see, the Pharaohs themselves were clean shaven.
09:49 And they simply stuck a beard on their chins for a ceremonial
09:53 occasion, and I suppose Hatshepsut figured that if the
09:56 men can do it, she can do it, too. Anyway that's what she did.
09:59 Well, Hatshepsut built some tremendous obelisks.
10:10 This one lying here is the biggest one in the land of
10:12 Egypt at the present time. It snapped in half, actually.
10:15 And this other one that is standing over here is the
10:18 largest standing obelisk in the land of Egypt in contrast with
10:21 her father's, Tutmoses over there. Her obelisk is more than
10:25 30 meters high. She was also responsible for magnificent
10:30 mortuary temple.
10:41 Well, western people today are buried in holes
10:44 in the ground like that and then they put a tombstone on top.
10:48 Well, this is Hatshepsut's tombstone.
10:52 And you call it a beautiful mortuary temple.
10:55 And I consider that she should be identified with the Queen of
11:00 Sheba. You see, it says, in 1 Kings chapter 10 and in verse
11:04 one, Now when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon
11:07 concerning the name of the Lord, she came to test him
11:10 with hard questions. Well, who was this Queen of Sheba?
11:13 I don't think we should be in any doubt, myself, because Jesus
11:17 Christ identifies her. In Matthew 12 and in verse 42,
11:21 he says, Now when the Queen of the South came to hear the
11:26 wisdom of Solomon, she came from the ends of the earth
11:29 to hear the wisdom of Solomon. He calls her the Queen of the
11:32 South. Well, in Daniel chapter eleven, we have the king of the
11:36 North and the King of the South and there the King of the South
11:39 is identified as the King of Egypt. And so if the King of the
11:42 South is the King of Egypt, well then surely the Queen of the
11:44 South must be the Queen of Egypt and that is what Josephus,
11:47 the ancient historian says. He identifies her as the Queen
11:52 of Egypt and Ethiopia. Here is Hatshepsut's model and she's
11:57 seated on the birth stool. The baby will be placed here.
12:00 And she depicts herself as being born in the presence of the god.
12:04 Here's the god, Tut. Here's the god Ammon.
12:07 And here was the baby being received by the gods.
12:14 This is to establish her claim to the throne.
12:18 This segment shows Hatshepsut's expedition to the land of Tut.
12:21 You can see her soldiers with their shields standing on the
12:24 deck of the ship. See the fish underneath? And they're going
12:29 on this expedition to God's land Here are the sailors pulling on
12:33 the oars. You see the ship there? And the masts?
12:36 They're on the way to the haven of Hash.
12:39 Now up here are some trees and plants that this expedition
12:46 brought back to the area of Punt The archaeologist didn't know
12:53 where the land of Punt was so they called on the botanists
12:56 and said, Listen, you fellows, can you tell us where these
12:59 plants come from. And the botanist said, Sure we can
13:02 tell you. They come from east Africa, maybe from Somalia or
13:05 Eritrea and so the archaeologist said, Fine now we know where the
13:08 the land of Punt is. But I think there's another explanation.
13:11 Look at it this way. In 1 Kings, chapter 10, and in verse 10
13:16 it says, Then she, that is the Queen of Sheba, gave the king
13:20 120 talents of gold, spices, in precious great abundance,
13:25 precious stones, also the ships and King Solomon gave the Queen
13:29 of Sheba all she desired. Also the ships of Hiram brought
13:32 gold from Ophir and great quantities of Almug wood or
13:36 trees and precious stones from Ophir. So you see they actually
13:41 brought these things from East Africa. And when the Queen of
13:45 Sheba came there, she said, yea, I want some of them.
13:47 And so they brought them back and I think that's why they
13:49 finished up on this wall.
13:52 There was something else that impressed the Queen of Sheba,
13:56 in her visit to Solomon. It says, And when the Queen of
13:59 Sheba had seen all the wisdom of Solomon, the house that
14:02 he had built,-that's his temple- and his entry way or his ascent
14:06 by which he went up to the house of the Lord, there was no more
14:09 spirit in her. You see, there was something about the way
14:12 he went up to the temple that impressed her. And when you
14:16 look at this, it seems to me that she came back and said,
14:19 to her workmen, Now Look, I want a temple built like that.
14:22 This is unique, you see. There was never anything like this
14:24 before in the land of Egypt. Now, it is true that most
14:28 archaeologists identify Sheba with the city in southwest
14:32 Arabia, by the name of Marib. But for this there is no
14:35 descriptional evidence to support it. Wendell Phillips,
14:38 an American archaeologist conducted an excavation there,
14:42 Very exciting, really. and he wrote a book called,
14:44 Sheba's Buried City. Wonderful book but there's no evidence
14:48 to support this view, that the Queen of Sheba came from the
14:51 Southwest Arabia. But suddenly Queen Hatshepsut disappears from
14:56 the scene, and we suspect that her son-in-law Tutmoses III,
15:01 whose relief is seen here, knew something about it.
15:05 Because, immediately we find him going around the land of
15:09 Egypt demolishing her statues, and erasing her name from her
15:14 inscriptions. Here was a relief of Hatshepsut seated upon her
15:19 throne with her scepter in her hand. Tutmoses sent his workmen
15:23 down here and see how they chiseled it all off.
15:26 This was part of his rage to show his anger
15:30 at being held back from the throne so long.
15:33 So he became the mightiest of all the Pharaohs.
15:36 He conducted no less than 17 military campaigns.
15:39 Very successful, and he left some very fine statues of
15:43 himself. For instance there is this statue in the Luxor museum
15:47 and this very fine statue in the New York museum.
15:51 Tutmoses was also responsible for this great festal hall here
15:56 at Carnac in which the archaeologist found a very
15:59 important key list. He was also responsible for erecting 4 big
16:04 obelisks. He depicts two of them on his wall over there.
16:08 One of them has since gone to the city of London and stands on
16:14 the Thames embankment. Another has gone to New York.
16:16 Another one has gone to Istanbul. And the biggest
16:20 of them all stands in front of the churches of John Lateran
16:23 in Rome. It's 32.2 meters high and weighs 455 tons.
16:30 It's an enormous thing, the biggest obelisk ever made
16:32 in the land of Egypt. Tutmoses the 3rd whose relief you see
16:38 here, left this record of his military campaigns.
16:41 And he records here over 100 cities, each one depicted
16:47 by this oval with the form on top, cities which he conquered
16:51 in Palestine and Syria. At the top of this list there is the
16:56 city of Kadesh. Now the word Kadesh means holy or holy city.
17:01 and this could refer to Jerusalem. Now if what we're
17:05 saying is correct, this then is a record of the bible
17:09 story of Rehoboam being invaded by the Pharaoh of Egypt.
17:16 And it says here in 1 Kings 14, and verse 25, Now it happened
17:20 in the 5th year of the king Rehoboam that Shishak, king of
17:23 Egypt came up against Jerusalem and he took away the treasures
17:27 of the house of the Lord and the treasures of the kings
17:29 house. He took everything away. He also took away the gold
17:32 shields which Solomon had made. Now Tutmoses not only left a
17:37 record of the cities he conquered, but he left a record
17:41 of the loot that he took. And I want to show that.
17:44 It was on this wall that Tutmoses depicted a list of all
17:49 the loot that he took from his military campaign.
17:52 Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky who is from Jewish origin, has made a
17:56 comparison between what was in Solomon's temple, according
17:59 to the record of the book of Chronicles, and the items that
18:02 are listed here, and he claims there is a very close similarity
18:05 between those. For instance, you will notice up here the
18:08 fire pans and the bowls, the dishes. There's something up
18:13 here that looks very much like the ark of the covenant
18:16 with the poles through it by which priests carried it.
18:19 And there is an altar. It looks like a fire altar such as
18:23 would be expected in the temple in Jerusalem. And then there's
18:27 this other altar up here. Well it looks more like 7 lampstands.
18:32 that sounds a bit familiar. In particular look up there,
18:36 There are two doors. You see that? And they're golden doors.
18:40 And it says in 1 Kings chapter 6 and in verse 32, The two doors
18:46 were of olive wood and he carved on them figures of
18:48 cherubim, palm trees and open flowers overlaid them with gold.
18:52 Golden doors. And so we have golden doors up here.
19:00 Hedjkheperre Sheshenq was the founder of the Libyan 22nd
19:04 dynasty. And just around the corner here he has left a relief
19:09 which shows a list of cities that were in Palestine and
19:15 Syria and authorities have identified this list with the
19:19 cities conquered by Shishak of the bible. The list is somewhat
19:23 similar as you can see these ovals with the heads on top
19:26 similar to the list that was left by Tutmoses the 3rd.
19:29 But I don't consider this to be a valid identification.
19:32 If this really was the Shishak of the bible, what city would
19:36 you expect to find at the top of the list? Well, Jerusalem
19:39 of course. But Jerusalem is not even in this list.
19:42 Moreover authorities consider that this is not a historical
19:46 list. For some of the cities mentioned here had ceased
19:49 to exist by the time of Shishak. The Matani in particular had
19:54 been wiped out 400 years prior to this list. So I don't
19:58 consider this to be a valid identification.
20:10 Tutmoses the 3rd had transformed Egypt from a nation into an
20:15 empire by his military conquests and from then on
20:19 the tribute flowed in from the surrounding nations.
20:22 Enabling the Pharaohs of the 18th and 19th dynasties
20:26 to build such massive temples and monuments.
20:28 He was followed by Amenophis the 2nd. Amenhotep the 2nd.
20:34 And he left a rather interesting statue which is today in the
20:39 the Cairo museum. And it depicts him as a devotee of the cow
20:44 goddess Hathor. At the front end you see him under the protection
20:49 of the cow goddess and at the other end, well, he's drawing
20:53 nourishment off the grid from this deity. After Amenophis
20:58 the 2nd came Tutmoses the 4th. And he has left rather an
21:04 interesting stela between those paws of the sphinx. He records
21:09 there how he was to become the Pharaoh as the result of
21:14 a dream he had in which the sphinx appeared to him and said,
21:17 If you'll only clear the sand that's stifling me, I'll make
21:21 you the next Pharaoh. Some people have read a lot into
21:23 this and tried to make out that he was made the Pharaoh as the
21:29 result of this dream. Well, I don't consider that to be
21:32 plausible. It was simply a device the Pharaohs had
21:35 to claim the throne as a divine right. And so he simply claims
21:41 that the sphinx had appeared to him and spoke to him.
21:44 Well, he was followed by Amenophis III. Sometimes
21:48 referred to as Amenophis or Amenhotep the magnificent.
21:52 because of his tremendous building program.
21:55 And the largest statue in the Cairo museum depicts Amenophis
22:00 III, and his wife with her arm affectionately around his waist
22:05 The magnitude of his building projects can be gauged from
22:11 these two colossal statues of Amenophis llI which once stood
22:17 at the entrance of his great temple here at Luxor.
22:47 To give you some idea of the enormous magnitude of this
22:51 temple, do you see that stela away back there. Well that
22:56 marked the rear end of the temple which stretched right
22:59 forward to those two huge statues known as the
23:03 Colossi of Memnon which mark the front of the temple.
23:07 Around the other side of this statue of Amenophis is a small
23:12 statue of his mother, Mutemwiya.
23:14 And on this side is a statue of his wife, Tiye.
23:19 Now she's a bit cut down to size of course, but anyway he was
23:22 apparently very devoted to her. because she appeared in so many
23:26 statues and its a little difficult to understand why
23:29 if we go by a statue of her in the Berlin museum.
23:32 She is not exactly beautiful. But anyway maybe she had a
23:35 nice personality or something like that. Now around the side
23:40 of this statue there is a very interesting symbolism.
23:45 Can you see here two figures? And they're both of the river
23:50 god Hapi, representing upper and lower Egypt. And you notice how
23:56 they're sort of tying something together? Well, actually that's
24:00 what the river Egypt does. It binds upper and lower Egypt
24:04 together. And so this is a very fitting symbolism of the
24:07 unity of Egypt which the Pharaohs tried to obtain and the
24:11 river god Hapi binding upper and lower Egypt together.
24:20 Now we come to a really intriguing era of Egyptian
24:24 history. Following Amenophis the 3rd, came his son,
24:29 Amenophis the 4th. And this character adopted a new form of
24:33 religion. He began to worship the sun god under the form of
24:38 his god, Aten, the Sun disk. And he changed his name from
24:43 Amenophis, which included the name of the god Ammon, to
24:48 Atonaton, which incorporated the sun disk, Aton. And his
24:53 reliefs show him as worshiping this sun god. For instance
24:58 in this relief which is in the Cairo museum, we see him
25:04 standing with hands upraised, worshiping Aton
25:08 and Aton on the other hand is reaching down his arms and
25:11 extend a blessing with hands outstretched upon the Pharaoh
25:15 and his wife. Now Atonaton was a grotesque figure if we're going
25:20 to go by his statues, thick lips thin cheek, protruding belly,
25:26 thick thighs. Did he really look like this? Or was it a new art
25:33 form. There's a lot of advocates of the latter theory
25:35 actually, I can't think anyone would want to be depicted
25:38 like this unless he was really like this. It is true that the
25:43 other members of his court also adopted a similar art form
25:47 but I think that was just following the fashion.
25:50 Anyway, Atonotan had some strange statues of himself
25:54 for instance there's this one that shows him without any
25:56 clothing on. Well now, this was abnormal for a Pharaoh.
26:00 They are always modestly dressed and this has given rise to a lot
26:04 of speculation as to why this should be. Was it because
26:08 he was like this? Actually you'll notice that something
26:12 else was missing, too. And this has led to some suggestions that
26:16 he was not able to procreate. But, we do know that he had
26:21 six daughters. You might say they were adopted.
26:24 But if the Pharaoh was going to adopt any children,
26:27 you tell me, what would they be? Well, of course they'd be sons.
26:31 so its quite apparent that he was able to procreate. Well his
26:37 beautiful wife, Nefertiti, had her statue made and this head
26:42 of her is in the Berlin Museum. Its a beautiful statue. I went
26:45 to Berlin just purely and simply to see this statue and I wasn't
26:48 disappointed. And the extraordinary part is
26:52 that it depicts her as blind in the left eye. Do you see that?
26:55 Now this has led to a lot of speculation, too. Was she really
27:00 blind or didn't the artist finish his work?
27:03 Or was the statue mutilated afterward?
27:06 Well, personally I think that she did become blind
27:10 in the left eye. And that would explain why she had a separate
27:14 palace built for herself. Apparently Atonaton still loved
27:18 her but maybe he didn't want her as the retaining queen and
27:22 so not wishing to banish her, and yet not wishing to retain
27:25 her he built this separate palace for her down the
27:27 other end of the new city that he built, Akhetaten, half way
27:31 between Memphis and Thebes. Now Atonaton apparently went through
27:39 a very strange phase towards the end of his reign. And I think
27:44 that is the reason that he is depicted in that statue that I
27:47 showed you. Perhaps even as someone suggested, he developed
27:51 homosexual qualities. Whatever it was, his was an extraordinary
27:56 reign and a strange era in Egyptian history.
28:06 Atonaton was followed by his younger brother, Tutankhaton
28:10 and he reverted to the religion of Ammon. And so changed his
28:13 name to Tutankhamen. In 1922 Howard Carter made a spectacular
28:19 discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb. Its away down there in
28:23 the valley and later on in this series we're going to have a
28:26 full program on Tutankhaman. You want to stay around for
28:29 that. Its exciting. Tutankhamun was succeeded by Ay and then by
28:34 Horemheb who went around the land of Egypt smashing all the
28:39 statues of Atonaton and demolishing all his temples.
28:44 So this is where the archaeologists have stacked the
28:48 stones from Atonaton's smashed temple. And from the beautiful
28:54 reliefs you can see what a magnificent temple it was.
29:00 This is the way the 18th dynasty came to its end.
29:07 Ramesses the 1st is usually considered to be the 1st king of
29:13 of the 19th dynasty and he was followed by Seti the 1st
29:17 and then came Ramesses II or Ramesses the great.
29:21 And Seti and Ramesses the 2nd were responsible for this huge
29:26 hypostyle hall, 134 massive columns in this great hypostyle
29:33 hall. Ramesses was really great because he was a
29:36 compulsive builder and he also fought the famous battle of
29:41 Kadesh depicted on his reliefs. He was often rejoiced
29:45 to be able to tell about the battle of Kadesh.
29:47 And if you still don't feel like Ramesses was great, just
29:51 consider this. He had 92 sons and 106 daughters.
29:55 And if that doesn't make a man great, you tell me what does.
29:59 Well, Ramesses also was responsible for the magnificent
30:03 temple of Abu Simbel.
30:31 And there also he depicts his battle against the Hittites
30:35 at Kadesh. And we'll have more to say about them in our next
30:45 But Ramesses also had made provision for his death.
30:51 This is the Ramassea which is his mortuary temple,
30:55 still in remarkably good condition, even the roof
30:58 is intact. And lying on the ground you can see a statue
31:04 of Ramesses, which is the biggest statue in the land of
31:07 Egypt. You can get an idea of the enormous size of this statue
31:15 by the shaping of the feet.
31:23 Well, Ramesses the great died of course he ruled for 67 years
31:27 and that is his mortuary temple away over there in the distance
31:31 and he was succeeded by his son, Merenptah.
31:34 Now Merenptah left a stelae which is very important
31:39 just for one word that occurs on it, the word Israel. You see
31:43 the only place in all of Egypt that the word is Israel occurs.
31:47 Now Mereneptah is not saying that he conquered Israel,
31:49 he is simply recording a historical fact.
31:52 He says Israel is destroyed, her seed is no more. And personally
31:56 I consider this refers to the Assyrian invasion of Palestine
31:59 and the exile of the 10 tribes of Israel into Assyria.
32:15 We are at the Medinet Habu, a temple of Ramesses the 3rd.
32:21 And in this relief that you see here on the wall, Ramesses has
32:27 his club lifted and he's about to bash somebody's brains out.
32:30 And he is depicting here his battle with what I referred to
32:36 the peoples of the sea. Now this battle was supposed to
32:39 have occurred around 1200 BC. But there's some awkward
32:43 anachronisms involved here by this present dating.
32:46 One is, for instance, that Ramesses the 3rd is supposed
32:51 to be repelling these peoples of the sea who swept over
32:54 Anatolia around 1200 BC and annihilated the Hittites.
32:58 But we have a relief of Shalmaneser in his obelisk
33:03 in which he refers to his battle with the Hittites.
33:06 So here you are in the 9th century BC and here's
33:10 Shalmaneser fighting the Hittites who were supposed
33:13 to have been extinguished 1200 BC, you see it just doesn't
33:16 fit. And then, too, in this gateway over here, there is
33:20 obvious a Syrian influence. And you've got to date that to the
33:24 either the 8th or the 9th century BC. So where did
33:27 Ramesses llI get this concept from? Well, you can't say that
33:31 he anticipated the Syrian influence. It is much easier
33:35 to say that Ramesses was a later date. And that's where I
33:39 think it should be. In other words, what he is depicting
33:41 here is his conflicts with the Assyrians. And that would put it
33:46 around the 8th century BC. and there is just one more thing
33:49 that's rather interesting. Ramesses llI has a palace or
33:54 had a palace down in the delta at a place called Tel Yehudah.
34:00 Now some tiles were found there if you please, and they also
34:05 showed Persian influence, by the way, but on the back of the
34:08 tiles there were some Greek letters. Now these Greek letters
34:13 were intended so that they could put the wall in the right
34:14 place, you see. But the problem is, the Greek alphabet was not
34:19 invented until 800 BC. And yet here is Ramesses supposed to be
34:24 making these tiles 1200 BC. So I think all the evidence really
34:28 points to the fact. That this is Ramesses the 3rd fighting
34:33 a battle with the Assyrians, around about the 8th century BC.
34:38 And as far as the sea peoples who were involved, well,
34:42 The Assyrians simply conscripted the Phoenician navy and used
34:47 them in their battles against the Egyptians.
35:07 Well, we're just about down to the end of the history of
35:10 ancient Egypt. We come down to the time of Pharaoh-hophra.
35:14 He's mentioned in the biblical account in Jeremiah chapter
35:16 44 and in verse 30 where it says Behold I will give Pharaohhophra
35:20 king of Egypt into the hand of of his enemies.
35:22 hophra is to be identified with Pharaoh-Apries and this Pharaoh
35:28 left rather a cute sort of an obelisk that is today perched on
35:31 the back of an elephant outside the Pantheon in Rome.
35:34 The prophets of Israel were beginning to predict the doom
35:38 of Egypt. Ezekiel 30 and verse 13 says, I will also destroy the
35:43 idols and cause the images to cease from Noph. They shall no
35:47 longer be princes from the land of Egypt.
36:06 Well, that's exactly what happened. The Persian invasion
36:09 came in the 4th century BC and Cambyses smashed this
36:14 statue of Ramesses the great here in Luxor.
36:17 The great conqueror Alexander the great came here in 332 BC
36:22 and this relief show him worshiping the god Ammon.
36:26 In the latter centuries came the Romans. Here for instance is
36:30 Diocletian's pillar down there at Alexandria. Sometimes
36:33 referred to as Pompey's pillar. In the 7th century came the
36:37 Islamic invasion and finally we come down to the present state
36:41 of the united Arab republic of Egypt. And right down to the
36:45 present time there has never been a native prince in the land
36:49 of Egypt over the last more than 2000 years. The idols have
36:53 been smashed. Everything is just as the bible says, so
36:57 it seems the bible knew what it was talking about.
37:00 What makes Egypt so exciting, I believe, is its ability
37:04 to take you back in time to the glories of its long lost past
37:09 empire, an empire that was once nearly lost to the powerful
37:14 Hittites. To find out more about this relief of Ramesses
37:18 the great fighting the Hittites we take you in our next program
37:22 to Turkey. There we'll be visiting the weird and wonderful
37:27 world of Cappidocia with its incredible underground city
37:31 and geological formations. Although they succeeded in
37:36 defeating the Egyptians, the Hittites were lost from history
37:40 for thousands of years. The scholars even denied their
37:44 very existence until recently, that is. Don't miss it.
37:49 this next exciting episode of Digging up the Past when David
37:52 reveals the dramatic story of how the Hittites were found
37:56 once again.