Participants: Kevin Hart, Tom Shepherd
Series Code: MBOTB
Program Code: MBOTB00013A
00:20 Thank you for joining us on Books of the Book,
00:22 we are pretty much at the end of the gospel of Mark.
00:26 I'm so very excited about what we are going to learn.
00:28 I have a question for you, if you went to Symphony
00:31 orchestra and you went and saw Beethoven but
00:34 instead of hearing the whole entire Symphony,
00:36 it just cut off what was nearing the end.
00:40 And you wouldn't hear the usual TA Dah!
00:42 Wouldn't you think something was wrong?
00:44 Wouldn't you feel like you were left hanging?
00:46 Or you kind of robbed of your ticket price?
00:49 Well you may be surprised to find that similarly,
00:53 there is a similar situation in the gospel of Mark
00:56 and we are going to talk about that today.
00:57 I'm very happy to tell you that I have
00:59 Professor Tom Shepherd with me.
01:00 He is from Andrews University and he teaches
01:03 New Testament Interpretation.
01:05 Welcome Professor!
01:06 Good to be with you.
01:07 Kevin: I understand that you yourself are a musician.
01:10 Yes I'm a Cellist, I took up the cello some years ago
01:14 to play with my daughter who is a violinist.
01:16 We put together a string quartet.
01:19 So how would you feel if you were to Symphony
01:23 Orchestra and it didn't quite end?
01:25 Tom: that would be kind of strange.
01:26 Actually I was remember that one time we played a
01:29 string quartet that Hayden wrote called 'The Joke'
01:32 and it has one of these movements that seems to end
01:36 and it then it doesn't end.
01:38 It goes on a little bit and then the very ending
01:41 isn't the typical in ending.
01:43 So yeah I'm acquainted with this that's not the right
01:45 way to end a string quartet, or Symphony.
01:48 It just wouldn't seem right.
01:50 This may seem very strange to people but I say, why are
01:53 you talking about music instead of the gospel of Mark?
01:55 But let's read Mark chapter 16, that's the very last
01:58 chapter of the book.
01:59 Kevin: I'm excited about this.
02:01 We are going to hear the story of the resurrection,
02:02 Mark 16, I'll read verses 1-13, and then you take us down
02:08 through verse 20.
02:09 "When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene,
02:12 and Mary the mother of James, and Salome,
02:14 bought spices so that they might come and anoint Him.
02:17 Very early on the first day of the week,
02:20 they came to the tomb when the sun had risen.
02:22 They were saying to one another, who will roll away
02:26 the stone for us from the entrance of the tomb?
02:28 Looking up, they saw that the stone had been rolled
02:31 away: although it was extremely large.
02:34 Entering the tomb they saw a young man sitting at the
02:38 right wearing a white robe, and they were amazed.
02:41 And he said to them do not be amazed, you are looking
02:45 for Jesus the Nazarene who has been crucified,
02:48 he has risen; he is not here: behold here is the place
02:52 where they laid him.
02:54 But go tell his disciples and Peter he is going ahead of
02:57 you to Galilee: there you will see him
02:59 just as he told you.
03:01 They went out and fled from the tomb and trembling in
03:06 astonishment grip them and they said nothing to anyone
03:08 for they were afraid.
03:10 After he had risen early on the first day of the week,
03:13 he first appeared to Mary Magdalene,
03:14 from whom he had cast out seven demons.
03:17 She went and reported to those who had been with him,
03:20 while they were mourning and weeping.
03:22 When they heard that he was alive,
03:25 and had been seen by her,
03:26 they've refused to believe it.
03:28 After that he appeared in a different form to two of
03:31 them, while they were walking along,
03:33 on their way to the country.
03:34 They went away and reported it to the others,
03:37 but they did not believe them either. "
03:39 Kevin: "afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they
03:42 sat at meet, and upbraided them with their unbelief and
03:46 hardness of heart, because they believe not them which
03:49 had seen him after he was risen.
03:50 And he said unto them, go see into all the world,
03:53 and preach the gospel to every creature.
03:55 He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved;
03:58 but he that believeth not shall be damned.
04:01 And these signs shall follow them that believe;
04:04 in my name they shall cast out Devils; they
04:07 shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up
04:09 serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall
04:12 not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick,
04:15 and they shall recover.
04:16 So then after the Lord had spoken unto them,
04:19 He was received up into heaven, and sat on the
04:21 right hand of God.
04:23 And they went forth, and preached everywhere,
04:25 the Lord working with them, and confirming the word
04:28 with signs following. Amen!
04:31 Now some Bibles don't include verses 9-20, or
04:37 instead rather they are in footnote.
04:40 Kevin: now is there a reason for that?
04:42 Actually there is, if people will look in their Bibles.
04:45 King James Bible you would be reading it and it goes all
04:48 the way through verse 20, just like we read,
04:50 just like Kevin read for us.
04:52 But many other Bibles they will have these brackets,
04:54 there'll be footnotes, and often they will say something
04:57 like in the earliest manuscripts this is not included.
05:02 Now right here we can say a few words about the
05:05 manuscripts of the New Testament.
05:07 We can thank God that the New Testament is the most well
05:13 attested document, by far from the ancient world.
05:17 We have thousands, thousands of documents,
05:20 thousands of witnesses that tell us about the
05:23 text of the New Testament.
05:25 Part of the challenge that scholars face,
05:29 that no two documents are exactly alike.
05:32 Now there is a number that agree very closely,
05:35 but no two are exactly alike.
05:37 I mean if we were just sit down with 50 people and
05:40 tried to write out, say the Declaration of Independence
05:42 or something like that and we compare them all we would
05:45 find if there is a misspelling here, there was a word
05:47 left out here.
05:48 Those things happened in the history of the transmission
05:52 of the New Testament for thousands of years until we get
05:56 to printing presses.
05:57 So the question is, how do you go back and get to the
06:02 earliest manuscript, or get to the actual words of Mark?
06:06 Well what is so interesting is there are so many
06:09 manuscripts that scholars have come up with a series of
06:13 about 15 rules they apply to actually get backs towards
06:17 what we think is very close to what was originally
06:21 written, which is really a wonderful achievement.
06:24 There are a series of reasons why scholars feel that
06:29 likely verses 9-20 were not original to Mark.
06:34 As somebody may be sitting and watching and say,
06:38 that's terrible Pastor, you mean that part of
06:41 my Bible doesn't belong there?
06:42 I'll say just wait, hold on a minute, almost
06:46 everything that is said in Mark 16:9-20 appears
06:52 in one of the other Gospels.
06:54 So it's not as though we are kind of
06:55 losing information here.
06:57 Kevin: or someone kind of added in this whole extra
06:59 stuff that wasn't recorded.
07:02 Tom: we'll talk some more at the end, so if this isn't
07:05 part, then where are did it come from?
07:06 But you will notice that Mary Magdalene seen Jesus,
07:10 that appears in the book of John.
07:12 Two people meeting Him out in the country, that is
07:16 in the gospel of Luke.
07:17 The great commission, the meeting with the disciples,
07:20 you get some of that in Luke, then the great commission
07:24 you get that over the gospel of Matthew.
07:27 And people not being harmed when they're doing missionary
07:31 work, you find that in the book of Acts, Paul gets
07:33 bitten by a snake.
07:35 And then the Lord following with signs that is found
07:39 the book of Hebrews, so most every single detail
07:41 is found here in these verses appears in one
07:45 of the other Gospels.
07:47 Now I would like to show on this graphic that we have
07:49 prepared a series of reasons why the scholars
07:53 think that this probably was not originally part
07:56 of the gospel of Mark.
08:46 It seems to go back to the second century A.D., the
08:51 book was written in the second century A.D.
08:53 The next point is: that the longer ending has a style
09:01 that is not typical of the gospel of Mark.
09:04 There are certain words that appear there that are not
09:07 the ways of writing Greek that just seem actually more
09:10 polished than Mark's Greek, Mark's Greek is the poorest
09:16 Greek of any of the 4 Gospels.
09:17 It doesn't mean that you can't understand it, doesn't
09:19 mean isn't readable, but it just doesn't have the same
09:22 polish that say the gospel of Luke does.
09:26 So this longer ending really has a style that doesn't
09:31 quite seem the same.
09:34 Lastly several early church leaders do not know of the
09:37 shorter or longer endings that all, so this long ending from
09:42 verse 9-20 is actually older than the shorter ending
09:47 that is added on to some other ones.
09:48 All these characteristics put together drive scholars
09:53 to the opinion that the book really ends in verse 8.
09:57 However that is a very strange place to end the gospel,
10:03 and we'll come to that in a moment.
10:05 We want to go back to verse 1 and start reading
10:08 through from verse 1 again and follow the story
10:11 of the resurrection.
10:13 "Now when the Sabbath was over," it says in verse one,
10:15 "Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother James, and Salome,
10:18 bought some spices so that they might come and anoint
10:21 him, very early on the first day of the week they came
10:24 to the tomb when the sun had risen. "
10:27 Kevin: what is interesting about verse 2 is that, it
10:30 says that Mary came at the beginning of the morning.
10:35 Tom: they came at the beginning of the morning after the sun
10:38 had come up.
10:39 Kevin: right, the strange thing is that we find in the
10:41 book of John that Mary comes when it is still dark.
10:45 Tom: yeah she comes before, like you said
10:49 while it is still dark.
10:50 This seems to conflict with what is being said here
10:54 in the gospel of Mark.
10:56 Sometimes people will come and ask aren't their differences
11:01 between these, how can you put them together, how can
11:06 you make them compatible to one another they
11:09 don't seem to agree.
11:11 How could she come to the tomb before dawn and then
11:15 come with her friends after dawn, if
11:17 she had came before done wouldn't she be talking
11:20 to them already and saying they had already seen the
11:22 stone was rolled away, I met the Master, they don't
11:25 seem to be compatible.
11:27 Well the first thing I would say to somebody coming,
11:29 I found these differences between the Gospels,
11:32 my reaction would be Amen!
11:35 Amen! You're reading your Bible closely enough that you
11:39 notice there were differences.
11:41 Now what do we do with these differences?
11:45 Well let me put it this way, if we were to go to court.
11:50 You know we talked another time about going to court.
11:53 If we were to go to court and they have people get up on
11:56 the witness stand, and there were 4 witnesses.
11:58 The 4 witnesses said exactly the same thing.
12:03 You know their testimony about the accident was,
12:05 I mean exactly the same.
12:07 What would you say about those 4 witnesses?
12:08 They probably had credible information.
12:13 Tom: Credible information, if it was exactly alike?
12:17 Kevin: well that kind goes back to the whole Jesus on
12:19 the trial thing that we talked about on an earlier program.
12:21 I guess it would seem kind of fishy.
12:23 Tom: it would seem kind of fishy, it would seem like
12:26 they were making things up, they had gotten together
12:28 before hand and they had made-up a story, right?
12:31 So we actually expect people in a court of law,
12:34 we expect witnesses to be a little bit different
12:37 in their testimony.
12:38 Now do you see were I'm going?
12:40 Now we have is 4 Gospels were the testimony
12:43 is not exactly alike.
12:45 They should not destroy our faith, instead actually
12:49 it should build our faith.
12:50 I want to look at a text of Scripture, it's over
12:53 in the book of 2 Peter 1:16-19.
13:01 Here's the apostle Peter and he has been preaching for a
13:08 long time and he has been working in now he's a old man.
13:11 He's writing here these words, 2 Peter 1:16, "for we did
13:17 not follow cleverly devised tales when we made known to
13:21 you the power in the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ,
13:23 but we were eyewitnesses of his Majesty. For when he
13:27 received honor and glory from God the father, such an
13:31 utterance as this was made to him by the majestic glory.
13:34 This is my beloved son with whom I am well pleased, and
13:39 we ourselves heard this utterance made from heaven when
13:41 we were with him on the holy Mountain.
13:43 So we have prophetic word make more sure to which you
13:48 do well to pay attention, as to a lamp shining
13:51 in a dark place until the day dawns in the morning
13:53 rises in your hearts.
13:55 But know this first of all that no prophecy of Scripture
13:59 is a matter of one's own interpretation, for no prophecy
14:01 was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved
14:05 by the Holy Spirit spoke from God. "
14:08 Kevin: now I'm going to stop you here for a moment
14:11 professor, because we have to take a break.
14:12 But this is a really interesting thing as we are
14:14 trying to figure out why they don't agree so to speak
14:17 the gospel writers.
14:19 So if you are wondering why the gospel writers sometimes
14:21 record things a little bit different than each other's
14:23 stay tuned and you will find out on Books of the Book.