Series Code: ASB
Program Code: ASB000102A
00:04 And comes from the DVD series, "Awesome Science"
00:09 [music playing]
00:10 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): One of the most amazing places
00:12 on earth is Yellowstone National Park.
00:16 With beautiful mineral pools and hot geysers,
00:19 this place is full of mystery.
00:22 Early trappers thought that this was the entrance
00:24 to hell itself, and came back with unbelievable stories
00:28 of this amazing landscape.
00:30 More explorers came, and it was so impressive
00:33 that a movement began to save this national treasure
00:36 for the people.
00:38 And in 1872, it became America's first national park.
00:43 Most of the signs in the park approach its history
00:46 from an evolutionary perspective, meaning
00:48 millions of years, and based on the religion
00:51 of secular humanism.
00:53 But a closer look at the evidence
00:55 reveals consistencies of short ages and large catastrophes.
00:59 The Biblical record best explains
01:01 what we see at Yellowstone.
01:03 All this and more, next, on "Awesome Science."
01:07 [music playing]
01:11 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): "Awesome Science" takes you
01:14 on a field trip to some of the most amazing geologic
01:17 and historical sites around the world,
01:20 where we used the Bible as our history guidebook
01:22 to interpret what we see-- that the Bible can be trusted,
01:26 and empirical science falls in line
01:28 with the Biblical account of Creation,
01:30 the Fall, and the Flood.
01:33 Science-- it's awesome.
01:35 [music playing]
02:00 When you think of Yellowstone National Park,
02:02 most people usually remember the geysers and mud pots.
02:06 But there is so much more to see.
02:08 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): It covers
02:09 over 2 million acres in three states across its boundaries.
02:15 Yellowstone contains one of the world's largest supervolcanoes.
02:20 The last of the three gigantic eruptions was hundreds of times
02:23 greater than that of Mount St. Helens,
02:25 and the first eruption was thought
02:27 to have been 2000 times that of Mount St. Helens.
02:32 The Bible tells us that at the beginning
02:33 of the worldwide Flood, the fountains
02:35 of the great deep burst forth.
02:38 During the Flood, and right after,
02:41 the Earth was going through tremendous geologic changes
02:44 because of the moving of Earth's outer plates.
02:48 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): Volcanoes
02:49 were still active, including this caldera, shaping
02:54 the land after the Flood.
02:58 We can see other supervolcanoes around the world.
03:01 They can be seen on almost every continent.
03:04 Ones we know of reside in California, New Mexico,
03:08 Indonesia, New Zealand, and Japan.
03:16 The park has two main access routeS-- a south circle
03:20 and a north circle, each passed by rather interesting features.
03:26 Besides the sedimentary and basement rocks,
03:28 there are two other types of rocks
03:30 in the park-- volcanic rhyolite, which is hardened lava,
03:34 and tuft, which is cemented volcanic ash.
03:37 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): After passing the park entrances,
03:39 you'll eventually come into the Yellowstone Caldera.
03:43 It has been filled mostly with volcanic tuft.
03:46 Much of the rim has been breached, or covered
03:48 with volcanic products.
03:50 Remember, this is an active volcano with a lava chamber
03:54 just several miles beneath the surface.
03:57 There is no immediate danger, but it
03:59 is a reminder of the volcanic activity
04:01 that we've seen from the past and activity
04:03 that we expect in the future.
04:05 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): Throughout the park,
04:07 there is evidence of the Yellowstone fire
04:09 which happened in the summer of 1988.
04:12 It burned almost a third of all the trees in the park.
04:17 Many of the larger animals were able to escape and return
04:21 Because of our Creator's design,
04:23 even in a sin-cursed world, the forest is coming back quickly.
04:30 In order for us to better understand
04:31 the geology at Yellowstone, we need
04:33 to take a look at the "geologic" column.
04:36 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): The traditional belief
04:38 from secular scientists is that the geologic column represents
04:42 long ages of time, billions of years,
04:46 starting with the Precambrian and ending in the Cenozoic,
04:50 being laid down slowly and gradually,
04:53 without a global catastrophe.
04:55 [music playing]
04:57 This sequence is never complete in any one location,
05:02 so secular scientists have to combine locations to get
05:05 their full view of the column.
05:08 Using the Bible as our history guidebook,
05:10 the earth is only about 6,000 years in age,
05:12 according to the genealogies.
05:14 Since many of the layers are sedimentary,
05:17 the Flood was the catastrophic historical event
05:20 that was the mechanism for quickly laying down each layer.
05:24 The fossils we find in each layer
05:26 were mostly buried over the year of the Flood.
05:29 Many Precambrian rocks are those created
05:31 during the Week of Creation, mostly on day three.
05:35 There were likely forces acting upon them during the Flood,
05:39 with the raising and lowering of the mountains and valleys
05:42 to cause some changes.
05:44 But largely, they were the rocks made during Creation Week.
05:49 Since there were about 1,600 years before the Flood,
05:52 we do see some evidence of erosion
05:54 and some sediment layers.
05:56 But there are very few fossils because the Flood,
05:59 the prime mechanism for fossilization,
06:01 had not yet come.
06:03 Secular scientists say that these early layers do not
06:06 have fossils because life was too "simple" at the beginning,
06:10 and only microbes had evolved.
06:12 But the Biblical explanation is much stronger,
06:15 for several reasons.
06:16 First of all these "simple" life forms are not simple at all.
06:20 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): And further,
06:22 the conditions necessary for fossilization
06:24 didn't occur until the Flood came.
06:28 The Paleozoic layers start with the fossils
06:30 of sea-floor creatures, which would have been buried first
06:33 with the onset of the Flood.
06:35 This makes sense because the Flood
06:37 started with the fountains of the great deep breaking open.
06:42 In layers above are fish fossils,
06:44 because they were the next to die.
06:46 We then find land-plant fossils and coal.
06:51 When the Flood moved inland, it wiped out
06:53 most of the vegetation.
06:56 Land animals would have escaped to higher ground,
06:58 or, by virtue of being on higher ground,
07:00 would have had a higher burial in the fossil layers.
07:05 The Mesozoic rock layers contains more coal
07:08 and reptiles.
07:11 As the trees were uprooted, these surely formed
07:14 into some of the large, floating log
07:15 mats similar to what we have seen at Mount St. Helens'
07:18 Spirit Lake after the eruption.
07:21 When the loosened logs rubbed together,
07:23 floating on top of the flood waters,
07:25 their bark came off and sank to the bottom of the sea floor,
07:28 causing large deposits of peat which
07:30 eventually turned into coal when buried by other sediments.
07:34 Large reptiles could no longer survive.
07:37 Their bodies may have floated on top of the water for a while,
07:41 but eventually their weight and mass
07:42 carried them to the ocean floor, where they were quickly
07:45 buried by other sediments.
07:49 The natural sorting power of flowing water
07:51 may have also contributed to distributing plants and animals
07:55 in sedimentary layers through buoyancy and other factors.
08:00 Fossilization of plants and animals happens quickly.
08:03 It does not take long periods of time.
08:06 You don't find any dead carcasses on the sea floor
08:09 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): Dead animals
08:11 on the ocean floor are quickly consumed by scavengers,
08:14 and their bones decay away.
08:17 The same is true on land.
08:20 It is suspected that mammals survived the longest.
08:23 Many of them could have survived a bit longer on higher ground,
08:26 or on the floating log mats.
08:30 Many mammals also float when dead, preventing them
08:33 from being rapidly buried by sediment and fossilized.
08:39 The Cenozoic contains the last layers,
08:42 which may have marked the end stages of the Flood,
08:46 and the short time thereafter when there were
08:48 continuing local catastrophes.
08:51 Most layers have a better explanation
08:53 when viewed in the light of a Biblical worldview.
08:55 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): Since there is not
08:57 a full sequence of the column in any one location,
09:01 this is consistent with the Flood account,
09:03 because water in currents will carry sand, silt,
09:06 and mud to different places around the earth.
09:10 It's Flood action, not billions of years.
09:18 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): On the northwest side
09:19 of the southern loop is a prized collection of geysers.
09:24 It's a great place to get out and tour the hot springs.
09:28 Yellowstone hosts 2/3 of all the known geysers in the world.
09:33 The close proximity of these geysers
09:35 is because of the large magma chamber a few miles
09:38 below the surface.
09:41 The highest geyser in the world resides here--
09:43 Steamboat Geyser.
09:45 It can erupt up to 300 feet high,
09:48 but eruptions are rare and unpredictable.
09:51 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): A geyser source is melted
09:53 snow and rain, which eventually moves
09:55 through the porous volcanic rock.
09:57 The water mixes with saline brine and heat
10:00 from the shallow magma.
10:02 The water rises well above the boiling point,
10:04 but remains in a liquid state due to the pressure and weight
10:08 of overlying water and rocks.
10:11 The water can exceed 400 degrees.
10:16 The silica in the water creates seals in the fissures,
10:18 and a plumbing system develops.
10:23 When the pressure is sufficient, it forces the water up
10:26 to the surface and a geyser results.
10:30 There are a variety of minerals and species
10:32 of algae in the hot pools.
10:34 Microbes grow at different acidities.
10:37 A pool's color can be used to determine its acidity.
10:40 Green is more acidic, and orange is more alkali.
10:43 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): The organisms and enzymes
10:45 can survive sulphur emissions similar to microbes
10:48 living near thermal vents on the bottom of the ocean.
10:51 Secular scientists suggest that if you look into the hot pools,
10:55 you can imagine life as it began, billions of years ago.
10:59 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): In reality,
11:01 these heat-loving microbes are not
11:02 simple or primitive, but extremely complex
11:05 in their structure and biochemistry.
11:08 They require an intelligent designer, the Creator God
11:11 of the universe.
11:12 Evolved over billions of years?
11:15 Not a chance.
11:21 Some of the hottest geothermal features here in Yellowstone
11:24 are fumaroles.
11:25 Behind me here is Roaring Mountain.
11:27 Any water that comes up close to the surface
11:30 immediately gets flashed into steam.
11:32 [music playing]
11:35 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): The Yellowstone River
11:37 runs through the park with its source from Yellowstone Lake.
11:43 The river has cut through volcanic rhyolite
11:45 and soft tuft, leaving a stained pastel colored
11:48 by the hot springs and fumaroles.
11:52 The river cuts through Hayden Valley,
11:54 where many buffalo roam.
11:57 There were once millions of buffalo
11:59 that roamed the plains and mountains of North America.
12:02 They were killed off, mostly by hunting.
12:05 But now a strong herd exists in Yellowstone year-round.
12:09 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): Hayden Valley
12:11 is thought to have been covered up by 200 feet of water
12:13 when Yellowstone Lake extended through this valley
12:16 after the retreat of the glaciers
12:18 at the end of the ice age.
12:21 Very little grows here, because it
12:23 was a lake bed where glacial clay lines the valley floor.
12:30 Trees across the river mark the former shoreline of the lake.
12:35 This area in the park is called the Grand Canyon
12:39 of Yellowstone.
12:42 It was cut by the Yellowstone River through basalt and ash,
12:45 and is one of the most well-recognized
12:47 geologic features of the park.
12:50 Secular geologists thought that the carving of this canyon
12:53 took tens of thousands of years.
12:56 But evidence is beginning to emerge that an upstream ice
12:59 dam may have failed, carving out this canyon
13:02 in a very short time-- maybe even as little as a day.
13:06 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): The rock in the canyon is soft,
13:09 so it would have been quite easily cut
13:10 by fast-moving water.
13:14 There is similar evidence like this
13:16 in Eastern Washington, with the Missoula flood,
13:19 at Mount St. Helens, as well as the Grand Canyon in Arizona.
13:25 The steepness of the canyon walls
13:27 help us realize that there has been
13:28 a recent cutting of the canyon.
13:31 Based on the current rate of erosion, long periods of time
13:34 would have eroded the canyon much more than it is now,
13:37 and the canyon walls would have been much more gradual
13:40 in their slope.
13:42 We know that this is not formed by glaciation because it
13:45 does not exhibit u-shaped features like Yosemite National
13:52 A large glacier, as it moves and cuts the valley underneath it,
13:56 will shape the valley with rounded corners at the bottom.
14:00 When the ice retreats, the valley has a u-shaped bottom.
14:05 A valley cut by a river tends to have a v-shaped valley
14:08 with steep sides.
14:11 Understanding that this canyon has not
14:13 been affected by glaciation helps
14:15 us conclude that it was formed quite recently, after the ice
14:18 age, only a few thousand years ago.
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14:31 all from a Biblical worldview.
14:33 Awesome Science is our kids series hosted by Noah Justice
14:37 In every episode, Noah visits the national parks
14:40 and historical sites to help you understand
14:43 earth's history using a Biblical worldview.
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15:12 One of the most fascinating parts about Yellowstone
15:14 is its petrified forests.
15:16 Much of it is in the Specimen Ridge area.
15:18 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): There we
15:20 find hundreds of upright, petrified logs
15:22 in 27 to 50 layers of forest.
15:26 Secular scientists say that there were many forests here,
15:30 one laid on top of the other, which
15:33 took around 30,000 years in an ongoing cycle to create.
15:38 A forest would grow.
15:40 Then it would be covered by volcanic ash.
15:42 Minerals would soak into the tree and petrify it.
15:45 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): The ash
15:46 weathered into clay and soil.
15:49 Then, a new forest grew, was destroyed by the ash,
15:54 and the process continues.
15:57 Eventually, the layers were exposed by erosion,
15:59 revealing what we see today.
16:02 Using the Bible as our history guidebook,
16:04 with an earth age of only 6,000 years,
16:07 the Petrified Forests of Yellowstone
16:09 do not match up with the secular science of 30,000 years.
16:12 No surprise.
16:13 But there is a different explanation.
16:16 The Bible says there was a catastrophic event, the Genesis
16:20 Flood, which destroyed all vegetation
16:22 on the pre-Flood earth.
16:23 Some of the trees survived on top of the flood waters,
16:26 creating these giant tree mats.
16:28 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): Yet, even
16:30 by the end of the Flood, some of the trees
16:32 were still floating on top of the flood waters,
16:34 even as the waters retreated from off the new, emerging land
16:40 As the logs had become waterlogged,
16:41 the heavy end, the root ball, sank in the water
16:44 to the submerged land surface below.
16:47 With the water current still carrying logs,
16:51 they were buried rapidly in the accumulating silt.
16:56 There was also a lot of continuing volcanic activity
16:59 beneath the waters and on the emerging land surface,
17:05 creating large explosions of ash that
17:08 added to the accumulating silt.
17:12 Because the logs were not sinking at the same time,
17:15 they would come to rest on different layers
17:17 of silt and ash.
17:20 Eventually, the upright logs would be fully buried,
17:23 and the chemicals in the water and ash
17:25 would petrify the trees quickly.
17:30 When the flood waters fully receded,
17:32 up to 50 levels of logs were deposited.
17:36 This explanation seems like a good story,
17:39 but hard to believe, until you see the facts.
17:41 [music playing]
17:48 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): If the logs
17:49 were trees that grew at these locations,
17:52 one would expect to find a well-developed root
17:54 system under the logs.
17:56 But they are nonexistent in all of the mature trees at all 50
18:02 Also, none of the logs have branches or bark,
18:05 indicating a cataclysmic .
18:08 In addition, the root balls at the bottoms of the logs
18:12 are small and broken off-- evidence
18:14 of the trees being forcefully pulled out of the ground,
18:17 transported, and deposited here in this area at Yellowstone.
18:21 [music playing]
18:28 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): When studying the rings of logs
18:30 near the top of the ridge and at the bottom,
18:33 there's a lot of similarity in the ring sizes,
18:36 indicating they all grew at the same time.
18:41 If the trees grew in different forests,
18:42 at different time periods, the rings should not be similar.
18:45 [music playing]
18:55 If each forest was killed by different eruption,
18:58 then the trace-element profiles in the ash
19:01 the logs were buried in should be different,
19:03 even if from the same volcano.
19:06 But there are only four different trace-element
19:08 profiles, which help us realize that the trees were
19:11 buried in less than a year.
19:13 [music playing]
19:20 In a typical forest, the decomposing material
19:22 on the forest floor, such as pine needles and dead trees,
19:26 should match the trees around us.
19:28 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): But at Specimen Ridge in Yellowstone,
19:31 the petrified flora doesn't match the petrified trees.
19:34 Which makes for a very petrifying situation.
19:37 Which indicates they didn't grow there.
19:39 [music playing]
19:45 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): In the typical forest,
19:47 you would expect to find evidence of animal life,
19:49 such as burrows and nests.
19:51 But there is no evidence of animal tracks in this area,
19:54 except the remains of termites and their holes
19:56 in some of the logs.
19:58 Some say that the animals fled during the eruptions.
20:02 This happens with large animals, but is not
20:04 true of worms and insects.
20:06 And bones, teeth, and droppings couldn't escape burial, either.
20:10 [music playing]
20:17 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): If the secular story
20:19 is used to explain the formation of these petrified forests,
20:24 then there should be successive layers
20:26 of clay and organic debris.
20:28 But there is no clay found in these volcanic layers,
20:31 and the organic materials are only about an inch
20:34 thick in places.
20:35 [music playing]
20:45 In addition, sediments in these layers
20:47 appear to have been graded and laminated--
20:50 the result of water and fluid action.
20:54 If these layers were only produced by volcanic activity,
20:57 no such features should be evident.
21:00 This was the result of the receding flood waters, not just
21:04 volcanic action.
21:09 Petrification is actually a pretty simple process.
21:12 It doesn't take that much time.
21:14 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): Secular scientists
21:16 used to say that it took many years to petrify wood.
21:20 But we can do it quickly in labs today.
21:24 What you need to petrify is the presence
21:27 of water saturated with minerals,
21:29 such as lime or silica.
21:31 We know, from the springs around Yellowstone,
21:34 that these minerals are in abundance.
21:37 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): When a log is buried and saturated
21:39 with water containing these minerals,
21:41 there's a chemical exchange that takes place.
21:44 Even if we give an extended range,
21:46 it could take as much as 100 years to fully petrify a log.
21:50 That's still within the Biblical time scale.
21:53 Many of the processes in nature,
21:55 that secular scientists thought took ages,
21:57 we can now do it very quickly.
22:00 Coal and oil have been produced in less than a year.
22:03 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): The global Flood
22:05 would provide the right conditions to quickly
22:07 bury, and exchange the chemicals and the heat
22:10 necessary to produce petrified wood on such a grand scale,
22:14 as here in Yellowstone.
22:18 [music playing]
22:22 Yellowstone National Park, where many natural wonders
22:25 are remarkably preserved, also preserves a testament
22:29 to the catastrophic Genesis Flood and its aftereffects.
22:33 Secular and Biblical geologists both agree on the evidence
22:37 that we find here in Yellowstone,
22:39 but we disagree on how we interpret that evidence.
22:43 NOAH JUSTICE (VOICEOVER): One rejects God and the Bible,
22:46 and hence, a global Flood, and accepts millions of years
22:51 from the religion of humanism.
22:53 The other views God as the authority in all areas,
22:57 and hence recognizes the effects of the Flood
22:59 as a result of God's judgment on sin.
23:04 God is going to judge the world again, this time by fire.
23:08 We are all given the opportunity to turn
23:10 to our Creator, repent of our sins, and make Him our Lord.
23:14 We Invite you to begin this journey today.
23:16 [music playing]
23:57 [wind blowing]
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