Series Code: ASB
Program Code: ASB000109A
00:04 And comes from the DVD series, "Awesome Science"
00:10 The Rockies are the largest group
00:12 of mountains in North America.
00:14 They stretch over 1,000 miles, from British Columbia
00:18 to New Mexico.
00:20 Most of the exposed rocks are sedimentary,
00:23 meaning they were formed by water and under water.
00:26 One of the most beautiful locations to see the Rockies
00:29 is Rocky Mountain National Park in central Colorado.
00:33 Secular scientists believe these mountains
00:35 were formed over tens of millions of years
00:38 through slow and gradual tectonic processes.
00:41 They use continental drift as a mechanism for mountain
00:44 building, yet this idea was originally proposed
00:48 by a Christian geologist in 1859,
00:51 where he suggested the continents came
00:53 to their current position in less than a
00:55 year during the global flood and didn't take millions of years.
01:00 Current Christian geologists have further research
01:03 on this idea, and now call it catastrophic plate tectonics.
01:07 Then, there are other slow forming geologic features.
01:12 These features are related to the Rockies formation
01:15 and erosion.
01:16 Examples being the Great Sand Dunes and Devils Tower.
01:21 The Bible indicates that our Earth
01:23 is only about 6,000 years old.
01:26 What is the real story of when and how these mountains were
01:30 formed and eroded.
01:32 What evidence suggests these mountains could
01:34 have formed and eroded during the catastrophic events
01:38 of the flood?
01:39 We'll find out all this and more next on Awesome Science.
01:48 Awesome Science takes you on a field trip
01:51 to some of the most amazing geologic and historic sites
01:55 around the world, where we use the Bible
01:58 as our history guidebook to interpret what we see.
02:01 That the Bible can be trusted and empirical science
02:04 falls in line with the biblical account of creation,
02:07 the fall, and the flood.
02:10 Science, it's awesome.
02:24 In the state of Colorado, just west of Fort Collins,
02:27 is the entrance to Rocky Mountain National Park.
02:31 The park was established in 1915 by President Woodrow Wilson.
02:36 It covers an area of 415 square miles with many stunning vistas
02:44 from valleys to high peaks.
02:47 The elevation changes from 4,000 to over 12,000 feet.
02:53 It's a great place to get out and enjoy nature.
02:57 There are over 300 miles of hiking trails plus 150 lakes
03:03 and 450 miles of streams.
03:06 Everywhere you look, there are amazing views.
03:09 The park has 72 peaks that tower over 12,000 feet.
03:14 The park represents the best of all parts
03:17 of the Rockies, deep valleys, high peaks, rough terrain,
03:24 and lots of wildlife.
03:26 There are many stops along the highway
03:28 for views of wild animals, opportunities
03:32 to see elk and deer.
03:35 Coming here is a real treat.
03:41 Mountains are found on every continent.
03:44 How do they form?
03:45 There are actually several ways mountains are built.
03:49 The first way is mountains can be formed by folded layers.
03:54 The layers are pushed together on each end and begin to fold.
03:58 The layers will rise and fall twisting in the process.
04:02 Examples of folded mountains are found in the Rockies, Alps,
04:06 Himalayas, and Appalachians.
04:09 Another kind is called domed mountains.
04:12 This happens when pressures below the earth's surface
04:15 push up layers, and then the layers get bent.
04:19 The Black Hills of South Dakota are
04:21 an example of domed mountains.
04:24 Then, there are fault block mountains.
04:27 This happens when layers shift up or down, like a knife went
04:31 through the layers and cut them up, so they shift vertically.
04:36 The Grand Tetons in Wyoming are an example
04:38 of fault block mountains.
04:41 Today, probably the most dramatic and visible formations
04:45 are volcanic mountains.
04:47 These types of mountains form when
04:49 molten lava comes up through the crust
04:51 and pushes out onto the surface.
04:53 They tend to be in linear chains across the earth.
04:57 They include the Cascades, Aleutians,
05:01 and Hawaiian Islands, which are around the Pacific Rim.
05:05 Secular scientists believe the mountains
05:08 we see today have risen over millions of years
05:11 through slow and gradual processes.
05:14 But since the Bible indicates a much younger
05:17 earth, the processes for building the mountains, which
05:21 we see today, would have happened much quicker
05:23 in the past.
05:25 There is a lot of evidence suggesting
05:27 the flood was responsible for catastrophic processes.
05:31 These processes would have formed most of the mountains
05:34 in less than a year.
05:36 So we have mountains forming through upheaval,
05:39 plus flood waters carving new valleys
05:42 and revealing more mountains.
05:44 Even during the several hundred years after the flood,
05:47 as the earth settled, there was still
05:49 lots of geologic activity.
05:52 Many of the volcanic mountains we see today
05:55 were a part of that process of reaching geologic equilibrium.
06:04 The Rockies only reach 13,000 to 14,000 feet,
06:08 and they are made up of sedimentary layers.
06:10 What's amazing about these mountains
06:12 is they're full of marine fossils.
06:15 Evolutionists presume these fossils
06:18 developed in a shallow sea covering this area
06:21 millions of years ago.
06:23 Below the sedimentary rocks, we find metamorphic rocks
06:27 and granites.
06:29 Metamorphic rocks are sedimentary and volcanic rocks
06:33 that have been changed by heat and pressure.
06:35 The granites are assumed to be the basement rocks formed over
06:39 a billion years ago.
06:42 These three levels of granites, metamorphic,
06:45 and sedimentary rocks are thought by secular scientists
06:48 to be three generations of mountain building processes.
06:52 The sedimentary being the youngest of these.
06:56 Many of the Rocky Mountains have been pushed up, faulted,
06:59 and folded.
07:00 How did this happen?
07:03 We now know the surface of the Earth
07:05 is made up of various plates called tectonic plates.
07:09 As far as we know, earth is the only planet in the solar system
07:13 with plates like these.
07:16 The plates move.
07:17 Currently, the rate of movement is slow.
07:20 They can collide with each other, pushing up mountains.
07:23 When one plate slides underneath another,
07:26 it is called subduction.
07:28 We know Mt.
07:29 Everest in Asia, the tallest mountain in the world,
07:32 continues to grow in height by 4 millimeters a year.
07:37 This is because two plates are pushing into each other.
07:41 The amazing part about Everest is the top layer
07:44 is sedimentary and contains fossils, which means
07:48 they were formed by water.
07:50 Since sea level is where most water is now, Mt.
07:53 Everest has risen almost 30,000 feet at some point in the past.
08:01 Most of the floor of the Pacific Ocean
08:03 is known as the Pacific plate.
08:06 North America is known as the North American plate,
08:09 and South America is known as the South American Plate.
08:13 The Western edges of North and South America
08:16 are at the edges of those plates.
08:19 While the east sides of those plates
08:21 go all the way to the Mid-Atlantic ridge.
08:25 It is thought by secular geologists
08:27 that North America was much flatter many millions of years
08:31 ago then it is now.
08:32 Placid seas came and went laying down many layers of sediments.
08:37 Then, some unknown geologic process
08:40 began pushing the Pacific plate down
08:43 below the North American plate.
08:45 The Pacific plate dragged down the Western edge of the North
08:48 America plate and began to push up the North American
08:51 plate near its Western side.
08:54 This caused mountains to be pushed up
08:56 supposedly forming the Rockies over tens of millions of years.
09:03 This upward pressure also allowed molten rock
09:06 to rise from deep in the earth causing some volcanic activity
09:10 on the surface.
09:13 As the sedimentary layers on top got pushed up,
09:17 they were partially eroded to expose
09:19 the metamorphic and granite rocks beneath,
09:22 leaving tilted sedimentary layers flanking them.
09:26 All of these geologic processes supposedly happened over
09:30 tens of millions of years.
09:32 Secular scientists believe that mountain building
09:35 is an ongoing process.
09:36 Mountains being destroyed and rebuilt over and over again.
09:44 For the most part, creation scientists
09:46 don't disagree with secular scientists about the mechanism
09:49 for creating the Rockies, but they
09:51 believe geologic processes happened much faster
09:54 in the past.
09:56 Back in 1859, French geographer and scientist,
10:00 Antonio Snider-Pellegrini proposed
10:03 that rapid horizontal divergence of the crustal plates
10:06 occurred during the flood of Noah's day,
10:09 and then slowed down.
10:11 This basically means tectonic plates
10:14 began moving very quickly initiating
10:16 the geologic processes to start the global flood.
10:19 During the one year period of the flood,
10:22 they continued to move, going underneath each other
10:25 or colliding.
10:26 This caused mountains to rise quickly,
10:28 and the flood waters to eventually move off
10:30 the continents.
10:32 He developed this idea after looking
10:35 at how some of the earth's continents
10:37 seemed to match together.
10:39 It appeared as if they were once connected.
10:42 He proposed the earth's tectonic plates were rapidly
10:45 ripped apart and sprinted catastrophically
10:48 to their current positions in less than a year.
10:52 Before this time, most geologists
10:55 believed the earth's plates were horizontally fixed.
10:58 Pellegrini a creationist, thought differently,
11:01 and furthered science as a result.
11:04 Later, secular geologists adopted this idea
11:08 of diverging crustal plates.
11:11 However, due to their world view of long ages,
11:13 they developed the idea of slow continental drift.
11:17 Some would say the amazing ideas of a creation geologist
11:21 were hijacked by secular scientists to prove long ages.
11:26 This is an effort to use creation geologist discoveries
11:30 against them.
11:32 Unfortunately, slow continental drift
11:35 has become the predominant theory
11:37 among secular geologists.
11:41 In the 1990s, several creation geologists
11:45 adopted Pellegrini's idea for quick movement of the earth's
11:48 plates during the flood.
11:51 They furthered his research, and called it catastrophic plate
11:54 tectonics, or CPT. As it was examined in more detail,
12:00 CPT appears capable of explaining
12:03 a wide variety of data, which slow tectonic theories
12:06 are incapable of explaining.
12:09 In a pre-flood earth, the earth was differentiated
12:12 into core, mantle, and crust.
12:15 The crust was separated horizontally
12:17 into large stable blocks of rock above the waters formed
12:21 during the creation week.
12:24 These types of rocks are mainly granites and metamorphic.
12:29 The ocean floor was primarily made of mafic basalt,
12:33 which is denser than granite.
12:35 In CPT, the flood was started as slabs of ocean floor
12:40 broke loose and subducted along thousands
12:43 of miles of pre-flood continental margins.
12:46 The pre-flood supercontinent also broke up
12:49 into fragments called plates.
12:51 This all led to the plates moving
12:53 at feet per second, and mantle convection
12:57 bringing up massive amounts of heat
12:59 from the interior of the earth.
13:02 The mantle convection affecting the earth's core,
13:05 which induced rapid reversals of the earth's magnetic field.
13:10 From near the core mantle boundary,
13:12 large plumes of molten rock rose to erupt
13:15 as vast volcanic outpourings called flood basalts.
13:20 Rising basalt lavas from the upper mantle
13:23 also rapidly filled the long linear ruptures
13:26 in the sea floor, pushing the old seafloor aside.
13:30 Rapidly, the continental fragments
13:32 were horizontally displaced pushing the plates.
13:36 This rapid rising of basalt magma with steam
13:39 came into contact with the ocean water
13:42 and jettisoned ocean water with steam
13:44 high into the atmosphere where it condensed
13:47 creating intense global rain.
13:51 The new warm ocean floor rose quickly
13:54 as the new less dense magma that had produced
13:57 it poured out from the mantle.
14:00 This caused sea level to rise so that the ocean waters swept up
14:04 onto and across the continents.
14:07 Now, the pushed aside denser cold pre-flood ocean
14:10 floor, as it subducted, started bending and up warping.
14:15 Fast moving ocean water facilitated the transport
14:18 of sediments onto the continental margins.
14:21 Large earthquakes induced tidal waves with ocean
14:25 to land movement further transporting sediments
14:28 into the continental interiors.
14:30 This resulted in sedimentary rock layers
14:32 covering regions and even entire continents that were eventually
14:36 covered in thick and uniform layers of sediment.
14:41 This is very prevalent in the Western United
14:43 States, such as in the southwest and the Rockies.
14:48 Erosion of these sediment layers can
14:50 be seen in places such as the Grand
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15:49 When the pre-flood, cold dense ocean
15:52 floor subducted under the moving continents and plunged
15:55 into the mantle it also tried to drag the continental edges
15:59 with it.
16:01 But there was a problem.
16:02 Further inland from its edge, the North American plate
16:05 began to arch upwards, and thus, the Rocky Mountain
16:08 started to develop very quickly.
16:11 There was some faulting as well as up warping.
16:15 During this time, cracking in the crust
16:17 also occurred, and large amounts of magma
16:21 poured out onto the continents through volcanoes.
16:24 Because the subducting pre-flood ocean floor
16:27 slab sank below creation week rocks foundational to the North
16:31 American plate, these got pushed up too.
16:34 Examples being the granites and metamorphic rocks.
16:38 When all of the cold, dense, pre-flood oceanic floor
16:41 had been replaced with new warm, less dense, less subductible
16:45 oceanic crust, catastrophic plate motion
16:49 slowed down and eventually stopped.
16:52 The continental margins stopped getting dragged down
16:55 by the subducting slab, so it bobbed back up again.
16:59 The Rockies thus, rose higher.
17:03 This new ocean floor increased in density as it cooled.
17:07 It then began sinking, producing deeper ocean basins.
17:12 As the mountains were rising on the continents,
17:14 the ocean basins were sinking, and the flood waters
17:17 receded quickly.
17:19 It caused sheet and channelized erosion
17:22 planing off thousands of feet of sedimentary layers.
17:26 Much of the continental shelves today
17:28 are comprised of these eroded materials.
17:31 Even after the flood waters drained into the ocean basins,
17:35 there was a substantial period of gravitational readjustment
17:39 were local to regional catastrophes
17:41 with intense earthquake and volcanic activity were common.
17:48 Post-flood sedimentation did continue, and was rapid
17:52 at times, but was mainly contained
17:54 to small basins on the continents.
17:57 Huge geologic activity in the oceans during the flood
18:01 would have heated up the water worldwide.
18:04 This resulted in a significantly warmer climate just
18:07 after the flood.
18:09 Large storms dumped huge amounts of rain and snow
18:13 on the continents causing heavy erosion
18:15 and the quick development of the ice age towards the poles.
18:20 CPT simply takes the secular continental drift idea
18:24 and puts it in the context of the flood, which
18:27 lasted only a year.
18:29 The Rockies formed quickly during this time.
18:32 Even after the flood, they would have experienced more change,
18:36 but not as dramatic as the earth settled and erosion continued.
18:41 Some creation scientists argue that recent earthquakes
18:45 and geologic activity is still the settling down of the earth
18:49 from the events of the flood.
18:51 CPT is a great model for explaining
18:54 much of the geology we observe around the world today.
18:58 Based on Pellegrini's observations,
19:00 the CPT model is actually older and more accurate
19:04 than the secular model of slow continental drift.
19:08 When you take the biblical record as true history,
19:11 it makes much better sense of what we find in the evidence.
19:14 Science, it's awesome.
19:21 Back in 1785, James Hutton proposed that the earth
19:25 was immensely old.
19:27 Before that, many scientists believed the earth was young,
19:31 using the Bible as their guide.
19:34 Today, most geologists take Hutton's view for granted
19:38 and accept that the continents formed at least 2 and 1/2
19:42 billion years ago.
19:43 Once you take a closer look, many geological processes
19:47 indicate the continents are much younger.
19:50 One such process, which indicates a younger earth,
19:53 is the process of erosion.
19:55 You can measure the rate of erosion across the world.
19:59 Water is the main culprit.
20:03 With some parts of the world getting more rain than others,
20:06 the rate of erosion can vary drastically across the globe.
20:10 Using current rates, the average height reduction
20:13 for all the continents is about 2.4 inches per 1,000 years.
20:18 In the 2 and 1/2 billion years of supposed earth's
20:21 continental history, 93 miles of continent
20:25 would have eroded, which defies common sense on a planet where
20:29 the highest mountains are only a few miles above sea level.
20:33 At the current average rate, North America
20:36 would have been leveled in less than 10 million years.
20:40 Either the average rate of erosion
20:42 was much smaller in the past, the earth just isn't that old,
20:45 or the rate of erosion was much greater in the past,
20:48 and the earth is as young as the Bible indicates,
20:51 only 6,000 years.
20:54 To make matters worse, mountainous regions
20:57 with their steep slopes and deep valleys
20:59 erode fastest, at an average of 39 inches in reduction
21:03 every 1,000 years.
21:06 Some mountains in Papua New Guinea
21:08 have been measured to erode at 750 inches per 1,000 years.
21:13 There is also evidence that the earth was much more temperate
21:16 in the past.
21:18 Places that are now deserts, like the Sahara,
21:20 were once very wet.
21:23 In addition, an abundance of evidence in the fossil record
21:27 shows a much wetter climate in the past.
21:30 So if the earth were even hundreds of millions of years
21:33 old, the mountains should not exist.
21:39 Secular scientists say the process of erosion and mountain
21:43 building is ongoing, so that as the mountains are eroded,
21:46 they continue to uplift and build.
21:49 So the effect of erosion is not as noticeable.
21:53 Yes, uplift is occurring right now,
21:56 but there is a major problem with this option.
21:59 If current erosion rates are used,
22:01 we should not find any old sediments in the mountain
22:04 areas, yet we find sediments from all ages preserved even
22:09 on the highest peaks, such as Mt.
22:13 But if we take the Bible literally,
22:15 asserting that there was a worldwide flood, which happened
22:18 in a year, then the rates of erosion
22:20 would have been off the charts and match much what
22:23 we find around the world.
22:26 The Bible says, by day 150 the entire earth
22:30 was covered in water.
22:32 In fact, the Bible states the highest peak from the earth
22:35 before the flood was covered by over 23 feet of water.
22:39 God's promise of destruction of man and animals was complete.
22:44 Only those on the ark could have survived.
22:47 Because many of the mountains today
22:49 show evidence of rising quickly during the flood,
22:52 the mountains before the flood were probably
22:54 much smaller and hard to compare to what we see today.
22:59 Some also question how the entire earth could
23:02 have been covered by water, but if every continent was
23:06 laid flat and the ocean basins were
23:08 filled in so that everything was level,
23:10 there is enough water to cover the entire earth up
23:14 to 1.7 miles.
23:16 That's about 9,000 feet.
23:19 Psalm 104, verse 8, tells us that during the flood,
23:23 the mountains rose and the ocean basins sank.
23:26 As already discussed, catastrophic plate tectonics
23:30 would have quickly push up mountains
23:32 and eroded them quickly.
23:34 Giant sheets of sediments thousands of feet
23:36 thick were eroded in just days to months
23:39 as the floodwaters retreated.
23:43 As you can tell by now, the flood
23:45 had a major impact on the earth we see today.
23:49 The Bible says the flood was God's judgment on sin
23:52 and rebellion back in the days of Noah.
23:55 With everything happening in our world today
23:58 and where man is headed, God promises another judgment
24:02 on man's rebellion and sin.
24:04 This time, by fire.
24:06 He loves his creation, but can't let it go on the way it is,
24:09 towards destruction.
24:11 But he promises, if we repent of our sin
24:14 and turn to his son, Jesus Christ, and trust in his death
24:18 on the cross as the payment for our sin,
24:21 then God will forgive us, and we will walk with him forever
24:25 in a new heaven and new earth.
24:27 If you have not done so already, we
24:30 encourage you to repent of your sin and turn to Jesus Christ
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25:39 Thank you for watching this episode of Awesome Science,
25:41 and remember, science, it's awesome.
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