Heaven's Point of View

Divorce in the United States

Three Angels Broadcasting Network

Program transcript

Participants: Yvonne Lewis (Host), Tom Shepherd


Series Code: HPOV

Program Code: HPOV000041A

00:15 Hello and welcome to Heaven's Point of View.
00:18 Our Series is on Love, Marriage, Sex, and Divorce
00:23 from the New Testament perspective.
00:25 Our featured Host is Dr. Tom Sheperd.
00:28 He is the Professor of New Testament Interpretation
00:32 at Andrews University.
00:33 He is the Director for the Ph. D.
00:36 and Th. D. Programs in that arena there
00:40 and he is also an MPH and Doctor of Public Health as well.
00:46 So, you just wear a number of hats don't you?
00:48 Yes and in this Series we kind of combine this again,
00:53 most of our focus is on what the Scriptures say
00:55 but we also take a look at what some of the statistics are
01:01 about marriage, about sexual experience,
01:04 about divorce
01:05 so that people understand some of the gravity
01:10 of the problems
01:12 and get an idea of the changes that are taking place
01:16 in our Society.
01:18 Yes and today we're going to talk about divorce
01:22 and look at it statistically and Biblically.
01:25 Right.
01:27 So, let's take a look at it,
01:29 it's a huge problem in the United States.
01:32 I'm afraid that it is, now,
01:33 people who live in other countries
01:35 who are watching these programs
01:36 can check material from their own country
01:39 and see what the results are and where things are
01:42 but we've put together, for this program,
01:45 a series of charts,
01:47 I know sometimes people may not like statistics,
01:50 I don't know, when I studied in Public Health
01:52 we had to do a lot of Statistics' studying,
01:54 I kind of like Statistics, it's sort of fun to look at
01:58 and try to figure out what's going on
02:00 and so, that's some of what we do here,
02:03 but before we approach the statistics
02:05 and look at those kinds of figures,
02:08 I want to stress that we are Christians talking about this
02:12 and that we are called to minister to people
02:15 in whatever situation they find themselves in life.
02:18 In this last section of this series
02:21 we're looking at the question of divorce
02:24 and that's such a sad, sad experience
02:27 but there is light, there is hope,
02:29 and the church is called to minister and to help the people
02:33 and actually, seeing these statistics
02:35 is, what shall I say,
02:39 maybe kind of a helpful "wakeup call"
02:41 to the church to say,
02:42 "Wow! this is a major problem in our Society,"
02:45 and our church tends to reflect the Society around it
02:50 and make up, we should take this seriously,
02:53 we should not just focus attention only on married people
02:56 or only on young people,
02:58 we need to think about people who are single,
03:00 we need to think about people who are divorced
03:03 and have programs in the church to support them. "
03:07 When we said that having... the other time...
03:10 that having church affiliation helps people not get divorced,
03:15 there's a reason for that,
03:16 I mean, the wonderful teachings of the Bible
03:19 but also in connection with that... the community of faith
03:23 that that has developed also creates a network of people
03:28 sort of a safety net to keep you from going off.
03:30 And that's so important, I mean, I'm a divorced person
03:34 and divorce is never an easy process
03:38 and if you're a Christian, it's not an easy journey
03:42 because you know what God expects
03:45 and yet, you are in a certain situation
03:48 so it is important to have that network,
03:50 that safety net,
03:51 that family of support around you
03:55 because the journey in divorce is a difficult one for everyone.
04:01 I'd like to say here that in the church
04:03 I think, we need to make some changes in the way we approach
04:07 and think about these issues
04:09 because sometimes what happens is
04:11 well, whenever I think divorce occurs...
04:15 it's something that people feel bad about,
04:18 it's an issue of shame for people who've gone through it
04:22 and shame is hard to deal with
04:25 and so what happens is people tend to drift away,
04:27 they tend to back off from the church,
04:30 maybe they go to a different church
04:32 and if there's another church in the area, that's...
04:34 at least they have a place they can go,
04:36 but we need to be watching for people
04:38 and supporting them and say,
04:40 "You know, we're sorry that
04:42 this happened to you but you know what?
04:43 We still love you and we still know that God loves you
04:46 and don't worry... this isn't the end of your Christian life,
04:50 this isn't the end of the road, don't give up hope. "
04:52 You know, it's so important Dr. Sheperd because
04:55 when I had... well even... at the time...
04:58 I was probably contemplating divorce
05:01 but hadn't gotten there yet and I remember being at church
05:04 and a lady just came up to me and she said,
05:07 "You look like you could use a friend. "
05:10 Yeah.
05:11 And... it was... it so profoundly touched me
05:15 because I did need a friend
05:16 because I was going through a really dark time
05:19 and that's what our church family can offer
05:22 that kind of support... not necessarily taking sides
05:26 or ostracizing one of the two partners
05:31 but just being there as a support
05:34 and praying for that person that's going through that time.
05:37 We have to realize that when people go through this,
05:38 it is so stressful, it's like major illness
05:42 it's like losing a family member it is so deeply stressful
05:45 and if you've never had deep stress in your life,
05:49 you're not as sensitive,
05:51 but if you've had any kind of deep stress,
05:53 illness, loss of a loved one, some of these kinds of things
05:56 or divorce in your experience of... or in a family member,
06:00 you're sensitized to it more
06:02 and we just need to be open to the Holy Spirit speaking to us
06:06 and saying, "I think you should support them
06:09 maybe invite them over for lunch or something
06:12 or go pray with them"
06:13 and it can be so encouraging to people
06:16 and sometimes... it's such small little things.
06:19 Just that small thing stayed in my heart
06:21 all these years, "I think you need a friend. "
06:24 Yeah... yeah...
06:26 So, I didn't mean to digress but...
06:28 so what do the statistics say about divorce in the Country?
06:31 Okay, yeah, so we should take a look at it,
06:32 the first... we have these charts...
06:34 and the first one shows the difference and the comparison
06:37 between the marriage rate and the divorce rate
06:39 in the United States between 2000 and 2007
06:41 and when you look at this chart, you notice that
06:45 the divorce rate is about half of what the marriage rate is
06:49 okay, so, this gets... quite a few people will say,
06:52 they'll look at that kind of chart and they'll say,
06:56 "Wow! that must mean that
06:58 50 percent of the marriages end in divorce. "
07:00 In fact, I've heard that.
07:02 Yeah, yeah, well, actually, when you look at this statistic,
07:05 you can't draw that conclusion from this statistic.
07:08 Now, why is that?
07:09 Well, this rate of divorce...
07:13 of marriage rate and of divorce rate...
07:16 shows you the number of people per thousand
07:19 or per hundred thousand
07:21 that are getting married or divorced each year,
07:24 the problem is, they are two different populations
07:27 okay, so, you're either married or you're not married.
07:30 Right, like... either pregnant or you're not pregnant
07:33 right... right...
07:35 So, the people getting married, are all getting married
07:39 from people who are not married, obviously,
07:42 okay, the people who are getting divorced,
07:44 are people who are getting divorced
07:47 from the group that is married. Ahh...
07:49 So, you have two different groups of populations
07:52 and you're actually looking at a static figure
07:55 as to what happens at a particular time.
07:58 Now, fortunately, when most people in a marriage,
08:00 they stay there for at least some time,
08:04 a number of years,
08:05 and many people... a good number of years,
08:08 and so to say that the divorce rate is at...
08:10 four per thousand
08:13 or that the marriage rate is eight per thousand,
08:17 just tells you the rate of what's going on
08:20 from the whole number of... all the population
08:22 but the two groups are coming
08:24 from two separate parts of the population.
08:25 So, if you look at the next chart,
08:28 it shows you the actual numbers of marriages and divorces
08:34 and you see that, typically we have...
08:38 in between 2 and 2.3 million divorces
08:41 in the United States each year, on the other hand,
08:46 the chart after that shows a figure of about 850,000
08:52 or so, of people getting divorces or annulments
08:57 or even up to 950,000 over the same period of time
09:02 or approximate period of time,
09:03 now if you look at those statistics carefully,
09:06 you would see that the total population groups were different
09:09 there is about 300 million people in the marriage group
09:13 that were listed and about 240, 230... in the divorce group
09:18 and people will say, "Why is that,
09:20 has the population of the United States suddenly changed?"
09:23 No, it's that some States don't report.
09:26 Ahhh...
09:28 Now, there are a number of health statistics that are...
09:31 we have in the United States
09:33 and we find that there are certain States,
09:35 for various reasons, will not report what's happening
09:40 and in this case, it's divorce,
09:42 when it comes to abortion,
09:44 there has been a series of States
09:47 that just... they don't report them anymore
09:49 and I'm afraid, not for public health reasons,
09:52 it's for political reasons that they don't do so,
09:54 Hmmm... hmmm... Right...
09:56 So that leads us on to our
09:58 our, our, our, next data,
10:01 so, just because half the marriages...
10:04 the divorce rate and the marriage rate
10:06 are about half of each other, doesn't mean that
10:10 half the marriages are ending in divorce.
10:13 There are two different populations
10:15 so it really doesn't tell you but we can get some better idea
10:19 when we look at... yet some other Stats...
10:22 okay, so, now we come to the slide that talks about
10:27 the percentage of the United States population
10:31 that is married, and it's rather interesting,
10:35 it's been dropping. Hmmm...
10:38 Back in 1970, about 70 percent
10:42 of the U.S. population was married.
10:44 By 1990, it had dropped to just over 60 percent,
10:48 and by 2002, it had dropped to just under 60 percent.
10:53 Hmmm... Right...
10:54 So you have a drop of about...
10:57 about ten percent of the number of people...
11:00 the percentage of people that are married.
11:02 So why do you think that people are getting married less?
11:05 Ah, well, there's any kinds of number of Stats
11:10 that are causing it,
11:12 now, if we actually look at the next slide,
11:14 the percentage of the United States population
11:16 that is divorced...
11:17 this is really kind of more shocking,
11:19 people not getting married... well that's one thing...
11:22 but people getting divorced...
11:24 the percentage of the population that's divorced has been rising,
11:28 back in 1980, it was at about six percent,
11:31 in 1990, it was eight percent, in 2002, it was ten percent.
11:37 Hmmm...
11:38 Now, the previous Stats that I gave you
11:41 about that percentages of the population that were married
11:45 was... in about...
11:46 well, in the first one it was about 20-year gap
11:49 from 1970 to 1990
11:51 and then another 12 years from 1990 to 2002
11:55 but the percentages of the U.S. population divorced
11:58 is in about ten-year intervals going from 1980 to 1990 to 2002
12:03 so you go from six to eight to ten,
12:06 Hmmm... hmmm...
12:08 That is striking. It is.
12:10 We have about 300 million people in this Country,
12:13 about 300 million is about the population of the United States,
12:17 when you say that ten percent of the population...
12:20 well, that's 30 million people who are now divorced.
12:24 Wow! it's much easier to get divorced now-a-days
12:28 than it used to be.
12:29 I'm afraid so.
12:31 And we had... on Dare to Dream...
12:33 we had a sermon on "Grounds for Marriage"
12:39 instead of "Grounds for Divorce" it was "Grounds for Marriage"
12:44 and the Preacher was saying, essentially,
12:47 and it was at Andrews, in fact, but he was saying
12:51 that it's much easier to just get into marriage now
12:55 and harder... I mean...
12:57 it's easier to get divorced than it is to get married,
13:00 so people are rushing...
13:04 some people are rushing into marriage
13:06 and then they get married and they find out,
13:09 "Oh! this is not what I wanted"
13:11 and then they're ready to get out
13:12 and they can get out much more easily,
13:14 you know, Society fosters that.
13:16 And actually, we should not make it easy to get divorced
13:21 because divorce destabilizes the Community
13:24 and it creates lot of trouble for...
13:27 particularly for women and for children, now, we can say
13:31 "That's just not fair, it's just not right"
13:33 but that's the reality of what happens.
13:34 It is.
13:35 And so, people who plan for Society and the Church,
13:40 we have a role in promoting things
13:42 should try to do things that help stabilize
13:44 and protect the vulnerable in our Society
13:47 and in our Society, it is still true
13:50 that the more vulnerable groups are women and children
13:54 and the poor and we should do things to help these people,
13:58 now there are several changes in our Society
14:00 that have helped to foster some of these changes,
14:03 where there are fewer people getting married,
14:06 there's more divorce taking place,
14:08 the development of effective treatments
14:12 for sexually transmitted diseases
14:17 has removed much of the fear of sex outside of marriage
14:21 and so, people don't always feel
14:23 that they need to get married in order to have sex,
14:26 we've already had quite a bit of discussions
14:30 about sex in these programs, and we can just reiterate
14:33 that while... it's wonderful to have good treatments
14:37 for sexually transmitted diseases,
14:39 I'm not opposed to treating those diseases,
14:41 I think it's important to treat them
14:43 and as a Public Health Training guy,
14:44 I'm like, "You know you need to find out who is infected
14:47 and you need to get them treated,"
14:49 because these diseases can become
14:51 more and more resistant to treatment.
14:53 Absolutely.
14:54 But effective treatments have decreased the fears
14:58 of having sex outside of marriage,
15:00 then there's the development of the Birth Control Pill
15:03 which... about 50 years ago also became effective
15:07 methods of contraception
15:09 and you could have sex outside of marriage without fear
15:12 that you were going to become pregnant, pretty much,
15:15 and... so that also helped to foster
15:18 more promiscuous...
15:20 I mean, it doesn't foster it in the sense
15:23 so people have to choose it,
15:25 but it makes it a little bit more of an option
15:27 available to them
15:28 then there's the economic independence of women
15:30 which has given them more opportunities
15:34 to depend on themselves instead of on a marriage
15:37 in order to have a home,
15:38 and then the rapid rise in abortion
15:41 making it possible for unwanted pregnancies to be terminated.
15:44 Now, the first three of these, we all applaud,
15:47 we say, "Good treatment for disease," amen.
15:51 We say, "birth control," of course, you should be able to
15:53 you know, plan your family out
15:56 and the "economic independence" of women... sure... fine...
16:00 "abortion," we know we as Christians have issues with that
16:03 that this is, life begins at conception
16:06 and that we should protect the unborn,
16:08 but, all these, except the last, we recognize as
16:12 advances and good in our Society
16:14 and tending towards... actually...
16:15 they have tended to push
16:17 in the direction of fewer people getting married.
16:20 So, there you have the decrease in the marriage rate.
16:23 Hmmm... hmmm... hmmm...
16:24 But the increase in the number of people divorced
16:27 also suggests that somehow our Society's view
16:30 of divorce has shifted and the idea of staying married
16:34 has shifted and that creates other problems.
16:38 So, we should also note several other marital statistics
16:46 I just have a few more to share,
16:47 24 percent of the population has never been married before.
16:51 That's pretty large.
16:54 Yeah, now, people say, "Wait a minute, wait a minute
16:57 you said that 60 percent of the people aren't married,"
17:01 okay, that's about...
17:02 you're saying, 10 percent are married,
17:04 that's... I guess... it all adds up
17:05 about 35 to 40 percent,
17:07 but I bring this statistic up
17:10 because, we in the church, tend to focus attention
17:13 on those who are married, those who have children
17:16 and the singles tend to get lost in the shuffle some place.
17:21 That's very true.
17:23 Or sometimes, a "Single's Club" is seen as a place to get...
17:27 to find a spouse, you know, and there are people who
17:31 for different places in their life or different times,
17:34 they don't want to get married,
17:35 they're single and they're just in a situation where they are...
17:40 and to be pressured by people to do that
17:43 is just kind of odd and not right.
17:45 That's so true and sometimes people are insensitive,
17:48 you know, "When are you getting married?"
17:50 "Why aren't you married yet?"
17:51 You know, especially if the woman has never been married,
17:55 and she's asked, "When are you getting married?"
17:58 And the implication is,
18:00 "Something's wrong with you because you're not married. "
18:03 Well, then we'd have to say the 25 percent of the population
18:05 has got something wrong with them, right?
18:06 It's rather a biased view and it shouldn't be.
18:10 Seven percent of the population is widowed.
18:13 Hmmm...
18:15 And we need to think about those people.
18:16 Now, the median age of first marriage has been rising
18:20 for males it's right now almost 27-years old,
18:23 for women, it's 25.3 years, okay, so,
18:27 this is a large... this is a much later
18:31 but people aren't waiting for sex.
18:34 That's true, that's what's happening.
18:36 Yeah, that's one of the big pressures
18:38 you see, back earlier... it was a shame,
18:41 it was terrible and it was risky
18:43 to have sex outside of marriage and so you waited
18:45 actually marriages were earlier,
18:47 like early 20s, maybe even back into the teens,
18:50 okay, but now, with all of these different methods of presenting
18:55 and preventing pregnancy, even if you get pregnant,
18:58 dealing with it, of not having problems with
19:01 sexually transmitted diseases as much
19:03 people say, "Well, I can have sex and not get married,"
19:07 now, we also have 5.5 million
19:09 unmarried couples living together
19:12 I mean, that's a 11 million people.
19:14 That's a whole lot of people,
19:19 and 89 percent of the unmarried couples living together
19:21 are male/female couples, so some are same sex, as well,
19:24 and so, these statistics are...
19:27 are... are... are rather striking,
19:29 we have the percentage listed here as well
19:33 of married people who reach a marriage anniversary
19:36 and if you look at that table,
19:38 you'll see that has been dropping
19:40 oh well, it drops off,
19:41 the fifth anniversary... about 80 percent of people reach that,
19:45 tenth anniversary... about 60-some people...
19:50 65 percent reach that,
19:52 fifteenth year... it's at about the 50 percent level
19:55 so, some people will say,
19:57 "Well then, are half of the marriages
20:00 ending in divorce anyways, is that within the outcome?"
20:03 Well, I wish we could tell that from this...
20:06 from this statistic, but the problem is
20:09 when you get to the 15th anniversary,
20:12 there'll be... many people are still living
20:15 but some will have died, not so many...
20:17 not so many,
20:19 25th wedding anniversary... only 30 percent reach that,
20:21 35th anniversary... 20 percent reach that
20:25 and the 50th anniversary...
20:27 only about 5 percent reach the 50th anniversary.
20:28 Now, that's not because they all got divorced,
20:31 that is because by the 50th Anniversary
20:33 most people are in their 70s or 80s or something
20:35 and they're just...
20:38 both spouses didn't survive till that time
20:40 but it's still obvious when you look at the statistic
20:43 that there's a huge problem
20:47 in our Country with divorce and that's what our big point is
20:51 in this presentation,
20:52 is that there's a very large problem with divorce,
20:55 one more statistic, no I guess I got two more...
20:58 the percentage of people who have ever been married
21:01 is listed in...
21:03 and for most people by the time they reach their mid-fifties,
21:07 95 percent of the people have been married
21:09 at one time or another
21:11 by the time they reach in their mid-fifties,
21:13 now for a lot of people
21:14 that would be about their 30th wedding anniversary
21:16 and if you go back to the previous slide,
21:19 you'll notice that at the 35th wedding anniversary,
21:22 only 20 percent of the people reach that
21:25 so, there's a fair bit of divorce going on, I'm afraid,
21:30 a fair bit of divorce,
21:31 the very last chart that I have is...
21:35 the probability of a first-marriage disruption
21:37 within ten years by Marriage Cohort,
21:41 now that is such a mouthful to look at that chart
21:45 what in the world does this chart mean?
21:49 Okay, a birth... a Marriage Cohort means
21:52 a group of people who got married at a particular time.
21:55 Okay. Okay...
21:57 So, if you look at the chart, you'll see that it has...
22:00 it breaks them into like four... four- or- five-year segments,
22:04 there's 1950 to 1954, 1955 to 1959,
22:08 1960 to 1964 and so on up to 1980 to 1984...
22:11 these are the people that got married at this time,
22:14 how likely was it within ten years
22:18 that their marriage would split up, okay,
22:21 and this is divided between whites and blacks,
22:24 okay, so we notice that in the 1950s,
22:27 for people being married for ten years,
22:31 the percentage for white couples was 13
22:35 and for black couples was 24,
22:37 sadly that black couples is
22:39 always higher than the white couples,
22:41 this is not to say there's any racial kind of thing here
22:44 somebody is better than somebody else or something,
22:47 there are stresses on different people
22:49 in different parts of Society
22:51 that play a lot of challenge in their life and everything
22:54 we should not be judges
22:56 so we're just presenting the data here of what happens
22:58 but what we notice for both groups
23:01 is that from the 1950s to the 1980s,
23:04 the chances of a first marriage
23:09 breaking up within ten years has about doubled.
23:12 Wow! Yeah, has about doubled!
23:15 So for the people in the white population
23:20 it went from 13 out of a 100
23:22 to almost 30 out of a 100, that's about double,
23:25 for the black population about 24 to 47,
23:27 that's also about double
23:29 so there was something happening back...
23:31 or there was something about our culture
23:33 back in the 1950s, that was quite different
23:36 about our culture in the 1980s.
23:38 Hmmm... hmmm...
23:39 So that it was much more likely that marriages would break up
23:43 so you see, this is a very important topic.
23:47 True.
23:48 It's just something that we as a church need to think about,
23:51 we need to talk about, we need to develop programs
23:56 to help our church members to stay together,
23:59 the best way is for none of this to happen
24:03 for us to help people stay connected together
24:06 and to have a healthy, happy marriage,
24:09 we need to have Seminars to talk about marriage health
24:12 we need to have programs
24:14 that encourage families to do things together,
24:17 that's why I believe so much in things like Pathfinders
24:21 and Little Lambs and Adventurers and all these programs
24:25 that we have and when our young people are in those programs,
24:28 then we, as parents, should be in them too.
24:31 Hmmm... You know...
24:33 That's how our children see our faith on display
24:36 and that's what helps them to recognize
24:38 that our faith is important to us,
24:40 that gives them security, children want security,
24:45 they're unhappy, if actually,
24:47 there are no rules in the household,
24:49 a household with no rules is an unhappy house.
24:52 That's very true, it's reflected in Government as well,
24:57 you have to have rules.
24:59 You have to have rules, you have to have laws,
25:01 and for children, it's kind of like
25:03 a wall that you can put your hand on, you know,
25:07 and you're not going to fall over,
25:08 it gives them security,
25:10 and we've gone through some of these statistics,
25:12 and we've talked about what happens to children in marriage
25:15 and what happens in divorce and what it causes,
25:18 it's so sad, it's so troubling
25:20 that we need to carefully help to prevent these things.
25:24 So, I want to hear at the end of this first section
25:27 we talked a lot about statistics, you know,
25:29 I've got to take the Public Health Hat back off
25:31 and put on the Bible Hat,
25:32 we need to open the Bible to Malachi 2 verse 16,
25:37 if you could read that verse for us. Yvonne: Sure.
25:39 The very last book of the Old Testament
25:43 gives us God's perspective, Malachi 2 and verse 16.
25:48 Malachi 2:16, it says, "For the Lord God of Israel
25:52 says that He hates divorce, for it covers one's garment
25:57 with violence," Says the Lord of hosts.
25:59 "Therefore, take heed to your spirit,
26:02 that you do not deal treacherously. "
26:05 Yes, it says, "I hate divorce. "
26:09 Hmmm...
26:10 "I hate divorce. " Hmmm... hmmm...
26:12 And I want to emphasize because we'll be talking about
26:17 in coming segments, we'll be talking about,
26:20 "What does Jesus say about divorce?"
26:21 We'll be talking about, "What does Paul say about divorce?"
26:23 And...
26:25 people will often... you know...
26:26 when you get into this question,
26:28 people will say, "Well, is it...
26:30 do they have Biblical grounds?
26:32 and what are the Biblical grounds?
26:33 Do they have the right to this
26:35 or do they not have the right to this and everything...
26:38 and you can lose the forest for the trees.
26:41 Hmmm... hmmm...
26:42 I want to bring the "forest message"
26:45 the forest message that God says is,
26:47 "I hate divorce. " Hmmm... hmmm...
26:50 Now He doesn't hate the people,
26:52 but He hates divorce because of what it does
26:55 to children and what it does to families,
26:57 women and men, it just...
26:59 it's just bad,
27:01 we got to try and stay away from it,
27:02 and help our people to do so.
27:04 Absolutely, so would you just summarize
27:06 what we learned from this discussion?
27:08 We've learned that American Society
27:10 has shifted, because of a number of
27:13 opportunities or types of things that have happened
27:16 in our Society, many of them good,
27:18 it has become easier for people to not get married
27:22 and more people have been getting divorced as a result,
27:26 so we have a higher percentage of our population... divorced,
27:29 a lower percentage married
27:30 which just means we have a more unstable Society.
27:33 We've seen that the Bible's message is,
27:35 "It opposes divorce,"
27:37 and so we want to emphasize what the Bible does.
27:39 Amen, well thank you so much Dr. Sheperd.
27:42 We want you to be sure to tune in
27:45 take notes, share this information,
27:47 this is such valuable information
27:50 that Dr. Sheperd is giving us
27:52 and the statistics are really important
27:54 because it's showing where we're going as a Society.
27:57 Well, we know where we're going right now,
28:00 we have to end... but we ask you to tune in next time
28:03 as we talk about these timely messages.
28:07 May God bless you.


Revised 2016-04-14